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  1. #1
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    Hebrew Cognates in other Languages

    For years I have noticed many obvious Hebrew cognates on other languages. I am working to write an article on this topic, and thought it would be helpful to have input from others as I do the research.

    The most amazing, profound, and revolutionary aspect of this study is that it offers the first true understanding of the phenomenon of near universal features found in the world's languages. For example, consider the near universal root ma as described in Appendix I of the American Heritage Dictionary:

    Appendix I

    Indo-European Roots
    ENTRY:m-2 DEFINITION:Mother. A linguistic near-universal found in many of the world's languages, often in reduplicated form. 1. mamma2, mammal, mammilla, from Latin mamma, breast. 2. Probably from this root is Greek Maia, 'good mother' (respectful form of address to old women), also nurse: Maia, maieutic; maiasaur. 3. mama, more recently formed in the same way. (Pokorny 3. m 694.)
    The near-universality of this root is discussed in this article from Bill Cassleman's website:

    Mamma is the formal English medical word for breast. Mamma is a reduplication of the much older Proto-Indo-European root *ma, breast or mother. This is not only the first sound uttered by many human infants, it may also be the most widespread word root in the world. *Ma forms the basis of the word for mother in many different and possibly unrelated language families around the world:
    • Latin mater
    • Greek meter
    • French mère
    • German Mutter
    • Russian mate
    • Icelandic modher
    • Sanskrit mata
    • Irish mathair
    • Welsh mam
    • Arabic oum
    • Hebrew em
    • Swahili mama
    • Chinese ma
    • Hawaian makuahine (maka first, beloved < *ma-k Proto-Polynesian, the mother (?) + wahine woman)
    Why so widespread a word? The sounds of m and a are among the easiest to make and among the first sounds acquired by a human infant. The first noise in life associated with deep pleasure may be the sound made by the infant’s mouth sucking milk from the mother’s breast. This sound is frequently some variant of ma-ma. The slight smacking movement of the lips made in uttering an m-sound is similar to the lip movement required to suck a nipple.
    Cassleman asked "Why so widesread a word?" and then gave the standard academic answer which seems little more than an empty speculation. Try making the "smack-smack" sound of a nursing infant and see if you can hear the "ma-ma" sound. I tried it and found nothing. Of course, we can't blame the tradition-bound scholars for presenting such a lame explanation as if it were "obvious," since their assumptions have blinded them to the possibility that Hebrew could be something more than just another language that "evolved" along with the human apes. Isaac Mozeson responded to the traditional academic explanation in his entry under "mama" on page 104 of his very helpful book called "The Word: The Dictionary that Reveals the Hebrew Sources of English":

    Quote Originally Posted by Mozeson
    Pre-verbal children do not cry "ma" any more than they cry "wa," yet there are no "mother" terms named for the "wa" or "ba" of a baby crying to press lips (with B or W pout) to a breast.
    Mozeson went on to note that the ultimate root of these mamma words is the Hebrew Em, "which signifies the 'womb' or 'origin.'" This is exactly what I published in the review of Spoke 13 (Mem) of the Bible Wheel book, reproduced online in the article called From the Waters of Judah:

    Variations on the Hebrew em (mother) are nearly universal throughout the world's languages, such as ma, mama, mom, mum, em, imma, amma. This points to Hebrew as the primordial language of the whole human race because it is only in Hebrew that we see the intrinsic coherence of this mama word with the literal meaning of Mem as water and its grammatical role as the sign of the preposition from. For what is a mother but she from whom we all come? And how do we come but through water? We all floated for nine months in the amniotic sac, and when the water broke, we were born into this world.
    This is what I mean when I say that Hebrew offers a revolutionary understanding of the near-universals found in the language. We do not have to speculate about some hypothetical physical mechanism that "causes" nearly all babies everywhere to say "mama" - we can see that the word mama has intrinsic meaning that is derived from the Divine Language designed by God as the foundation of His Word by which He created all that is.

    I am opening this thread so folks have a place to present any Hebrew cognates they find. I also want to discuss what this all means, and how it relates to the story of Babel, and how the languages could have originally been divided there, and then were transformed further under ordinary "evolution" that so enamors the modern mind.

    I will begin with a few of the more obvious examples. Hebrew consonants will be written as bold capitals. I list with Strongs numbers for convenience:

    ==============================
    Hebrew: 0817 AShaM {aw-shawm'}
    Meaning: 1) guilt, offense, guiltiness

    English: AShaMed: Feeling shame or guilt

    ==============================
    Hebrew 5307 NaPhaL {naw-fal'}
    Meaning: 1) to fall

    English: FaLL

    ==============================
    Hebrew 7919 SaKaL {saw-kal'}
    Meaning: 1) to be prudent, be circumspect, wisely understand, prosper ...
    Usage: AV - understand 12, wise 12, prosper 8, wisely 6, understanding 5, consider 4, instruct 3, prudent 2, skill 2, teach 2, misc 7; 63

    English: SKiLL

    It is interesting that sakal comes through almost as if it were transliterated from the Hebrew, rather than translated, in Daniel 9:22: And he informed me, and talked with me, and said, O Daniel, I am now come forth to give thee skill (sakal) and understanding.

    ======================================
    Here is an example that Mozeson uses on the homepage of his website:

    4376 MaKaR {maw-kar'}
    Meaning: 1) to sell

    English MaRKet (verb, to sell)

    Try pronouncing "mawkar market" a few times and you will hear how similar they are. This example shows how the consonants get scrambled between languages.

    Well, that's sufficient for an introduction to the topic. I look forward to your contributions.

    Richard

  2. #2
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    Talking Hebrew

    You never really think of a lot of our words coming from Hebrew. I remember as a kid phrases my Dad would use - like 'Yehudi did it" or "somebody put the kabosh on that"! Are there were more.

    My Dad was into crossword puzzles - and I followed suit. And then when looking into the Hebrew alef-beyt I would come across words such as 'kabosh' and find out they were actually Hebrew having the 'English' meaning. 'Kabash' (KBSh) is in the concordance actually meaning to bring into subjection or to keep under foot. And of course 'Yehudi' - the Jews - are blamed for everything.

    (When I'm 'more awake' - I'll have to think about other slang words we use that are actually Hebrew.

    Thanks for the post.

  3. #3
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    Quote Originally Posted by shalag View Post
    You never really think of a lot of our words coming from Hebrew. I remember as a kid phrases my Dad would use - like 'Yehudi did it" or "somebody put the kabosh on that"! Are there were more.

    My Dad was into crossword puzzles - and I followed suit. And then when looking into the Hebrew alef-beyt I would come across words such as 'kabosh' and find out they were actually Hebrew having the 'English' meaning. 'Kabash' (KBSh) is in the concordance actually meaning to bring into subjection or to keep under foot. And of course 'Yehudi' - the Jews - are blamed for everything.

    (When I'm 'more awake' - I'll have to think about other slang words we use that are actually Hebrew.

    Thanks for the post.
    Hi Shalag,

    Yes, there are lot of words that have been directly imported from Hebrew, like the ones you mention. Thanks for mentioning them. But my primary interest is to find Hebrew cognates that are more "fundamental" in the sense that their meanings are connected to the meaning of the letters, and their origin can not be traced to "natural dissemination."

    For example, take a look at the etymology of the word "gallows" - here is how Webster defines this word:
    gal•lows \ˈga-(ˌ)lōz, -ləz, in sense 3 also -ləs\ noun
    plural gallows or gal•lows•es
    [Middle English galwes, plural of galwe, from Old English gealga; akin to Old Norse gelgja pole, stake, Armenian jałk twig]
    (before 12th century)
    1 a : a frame usually of two upright posts and a crossbeam from which criminals are hanged — called also gallows tree
    b : the punishment of hanging
    2 : a structure consisting of an upright frame with a crosspiece
    Christ was crucified on the tree, also called the "gallows". Now look at its etymology as listed by Earnest Klein in his Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language:

    Gallows: ME galowes, galwes (pl.) from OE gealga, related to OS., OHG. galgo, ON. galgi, OFris galga, MHG galge, "gallows; cross" G. Galgen, "gallows", Goth galga, "cross", and to ON gelgja "pole, perch"
    Look at all those related words that mean "gallows" or "cross" (of Christ). Note how many follow the pattern GLG which resembles GoLGotha, from the Hebrew GuLGuleth, the Place where Christ was crucified on the "gallows." But now get this, Klein never mentioned the connection to Golgotha! And why not? Because the tradition-bound academics have no "naturalistic mechanism" to account for the correlation. Thus, it must be a "meaningless coincidence." But the idea of "coincidence" seems a little stretched when we return to Klein and consult him again as to the origin of the English word "wheel" which he says came from the OE (Old English) hweogol (note the GL root again) and ultimately from the IE root qwe-qw'los whence the Greek kuklos, all of which follows the fundamental pattern of the Hebrew galgal (GLGL) which is cognate with gulguleth and hence Golgotha and "Gallows" as discussed above. And then it all connects to the CaLvary = skull root in Latin through the C <=> G interchange (third letters of Latin and Hebrew, of similar consonantal value). Cf Gesenius' Hebrew Dictionary for the widespread use of the GLL root in many languages. Here is a snippet:

    The genuine power of this root is expressed by the Germ.rollen, which, like this, is also onomatopoetic. It is one very widely extended, imitating the noise of a globe or other round body rolled forward quickly. It is applied therefore in derivatives. [He then goes on to list many of the related words in Hebrew, Arabic, Latin, Greek, German, Dutch, etc. ... ]

    Just as the real meaning of the mama words can only be understood when we look at the meaning of Mem in Hebrew, so etymological loops like this remain obscure until we understand the meaning of elements GL, GLL, and GLGL in Hebrew. This is just an outline of my basic intuition. There is much more to say, but it takes a lot of work to write it all down, which is why I started this thread. I hope it will "loosen up my fingers" and get the thoughts flowing, and that others will jump in with their own insights, like you did.

    Thanks again,

    Richard

  4. #4
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    money

    The Hebrew word 'maneh' has morphed into English 'money'. Originally, maneh was a weight used for exchange purposes. The verb form is 'mawnah', meaning 'to divide, to number'. Ezekiel 45:12 is a good starting reference.

    Stephen

  5. #5
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    Quote Originally Posted by Stephen View Post
    The Hebrew word 'maneh' has morphed into English 'money'. Originally, maneh was a weight used for exchange purposes. The verb form is 'mawnah', meaning 'to divide, to number'. Ezekiel 45:12 is a good starting reference.

    Stephen
    Excellent find Stephen. It comes right through in the old King James:

    KJV Ezekiel 45:12 And the shekel shall be twenty gerahs: twenty shekels, five and twenty shekels, fifteen shekels, shall be your maneh (= money).

    Here's how New American Standard Hebrew-Aramaic Dictionaries defines it:
    maneh (584b); from 4487; maneh, mina (a measure of weight or money):— maneh(1), minas(4).


    A similar root is found transliterated in the NT:

    Matthew 6:24 &#182; No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon.

    Mammun is the modern Hebrew word for money. Klein traces it down to amun (in the sense of a trust, or deposit).

    And that reminds me of another whole class of MN related words based on the Hebrew amen = so be it, firm, steady, trustworth, permanent, remaining, and in Greek menai = abide, remain.

    Thus memory = mnemonics, what remains, etc.

    This is a very rich vein.

    Thanks Stephen!

    Richard

  6. #6
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    As I was reading a post by Stephen on another thread I noticed this....

    In passing, I'm sure you are aware that the wheels spoken of in Ezekiel 1 are referred to in the original tongue as ophanim. The singular is ophan (having the significant value of 137). This word originates from the idea of revolving, and survives today in our language in the word 'open' (think "Open sesame!" and you get the picture). Moreover, ophan survives today as the root in the German word Offenbarung, which is the German name for the Book of Revelation.

    Stephen
    Rose

  7. #7
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    At the crossing of the Reed Sea, Israel's water broke...and a nation was born

    Quote Originally Posted by RAM View Post
    For years I have noticed many obvious Hebrew cognates on other languages. I am working to write an article on this topic, and thought it would be helpful to have input from others as I do the research.

    The most amazing, profound, and revolutionary aspect of this study is that it offers the first true understanding of the phenomenon of near universal features found in the world's languages. For example, consider the near universal root ma as described in Appendix I of the American Heritage Dictionary:

    The near-universality of this root is discussed in this article from Bill Cassleman's website:

    Cassleman asked "Why so widesread a word?" and then gave the standard academic answer which seems little more than an empty speculation. Try making the "smack-smack" sound of a nursing infant and see if you can hear the "ma-ma" sound. I tried it and found nothing. Of course, we can't blame the tradition-bound scholars for presenting such a lame explanation as if it were "obvious," since their assumptions have blinded them to the possibility that Hebrew could be something more than just another language that "evolved" along with the human apes. Isaac Mozeson responded to the traditional academic explanation in his entry under "mama" on page 104 of his very helpful book called "The Word: The Dictionary that Reveals the Hebrew Sources of English":



    Mozeson went on to note that the ultimate root of these mamma words is the Hebrew Em, "which signifies the 'womb' or 'origin.'" This is exactly what I published in the review of Spoke 13 (Mem) of the Bible Wheel book, reproduced online in the article called From the Waters of Judah:

    This is what I mean when I say that Hebrew offers a revolutionary understanding of the near-universals found in the language. We do not have to speculate about some hypothetical physical mechanism that "causes" nearly all babies everywhere to say "mama" - we can see that the word mama has intrinsic meaning that is derived from the Divine Language designed by God as the foundation of His Word by which He created all that is.

    I am opening this thread so folks have a place to present any Hebrew cognates they find. I also want to discuss what this all means, and how it relates to the story of Babel, and how the languages could have originally been divided there, and then were transformed further under ordinary "evolution" that so enamors the modern mind.

    I will begin with a few of the more obvious examples. Hebrew consonants will be written as bold capitals. I list with Strongs numbers for convenience:

    ==============================
    Hebrew: 0817 AShaM {aw-shawm'}
    Meaning: 1) guilt, offense, guiltiness

    English: AShaMed: Feeling shame or guilt

    ==============================
    Hebrew 5307 NaPhaL {naw-fal'}
    Meaning: 1) to fall

    English: FaLL

    ==============================
    Hebrew 7919 SaKaL {saw-kal'}
    Meaning: 1) to be prudent, be circumspect, wisely understand, prosper ...
    Usage: AV - understand 12, wise 12, prosper 8, wisely 6, understanding 5, consider 4, instruct 3, prudent 2, skill 2, teach 2, misc 7; 63

    English: SKiLL

    It is interesting that sakal comes through almost as if it were transliterated from the Hebrew, rather than translated, in Daniel 9:22: And he informed me, and talked with me, and said, O Daniel, I am now come forth to give thee skill (sakal) and understanding.

    ======================================
    Here is an example that Mozeson uses on the homepage of his website:

    4376 MaKaR {maw-kar'}
    Meaning: 1) to sell

    English MaRKet (verb, to sell)

    Try pronouncing "mawkar market" a few times and you will hear how similar they are. This example shows how the consonants get scrambled between languages.

    Well, that's sufficient for an introduction to the topic. I look forward to your contributions.

    Richard
    Dear Richard and Forum Wheelies:

    I'm not sure if I'm writing in the right place. This format is new to me, sorry.
    The title above is in appreciation of Richard's great riff on Aleph-Mem, אם ,
    mother, and the Mem-vowel word for water -- like MaYAh (water in Aramaic).
    In Hebrew water is מים
    MaYiM, always plural, like "waters." Because water pools together.

    Mom n' Pop words are the least impressive, when it comes to being near universal. Family names are supposed to be the least likely to change. (Of course, Richard pointed out how only Hebrew e x p l a i n e d w h y an M-vowel/vowel-M word MEANT mama.

    Actually, the word "Hebrew" can be a problem. The Hebrews are a historical people, and even their language has been a bit sullied by foreign borrowings. Even Biblical Hebrew is too historic. The pristine PRE-Hebrew, before the neurolinguistic Big Bang of language diversity is what I want to uncover and discuss. History was kickstarted at the tower incident in Shinar (or Sumer, referenced as the much later Babel). So, we want a PREhistoric Hebrew, as spoken by angels and humans at the Garden of Eden. Thus I call this Pre-Hebrew EDENIC. Edenic joins all children of Adam, all humanity. For some, the term "Hebrew" can be divisive.

    Back to near-universal words, my favorite is SACK. It is not a word as common as mama and papa. But 1000s of languages have an S-K (fricative-guttural) work for a baglike container. Only in Hebrew, I mean Edenic, does the reverse, K-S, have a relevant meaning. SahQ שק is a sack, while KeeY$
    כיס is a pocket or slip CASE. Yes, now you know where CASE is from, or to ENCASE. There is a whole family of throat-made + whistling, guttural-fricative words for various coverings. Reading an entry like "ENCASE" or "SACK" in my dictionary will demonstrate how a SHACK is a larger but like-sounding SACK (covering, that is).

    If you check out my introductory documents, you'll see that SOUND is SENSE.
    Sound is energy. Our Creator used hard science. Academics think that language is a chaotic jumble that evolved from gabby gibbons. But at its CORE
    (מקור MaQOAR means source) , from the natural majesty of Edenic, we can find divine design even in English.

    I look forward to learning much from your comments and questions, Isaac

  8. #8
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    Hello Isaac,

    Welcome to our forum!



    I can't tell you how thrilled I am to have a man with your knowledge and expertise here in our forum to discuss your excellent work.

    Quote Originally Posted by IsaacMozeson View Post
    Dear Richard and Forum Wheelies:

    I'm not sure if I'm writing in the right place. This format is new to me, sorry.
    This thread is a fine place to start the conversation. But note also that I started this thread devoted specifically to your work.

    Quote Originally Posted by IsaacMozeson View Post
    The title above is in appreciation of Richard's great riff on Aleph-Mem, אם ,
    mother, and the Mem-vowel word for water -- like MaYAh (water in Aramaic).
    In Hebrew water is מים
    MaYiM, always plural, like "waters." Because water pools together.

    Mom n' Pop words are the least impressive, when it comes to being near universal. Family names are supposed to be the least likely to change. (Of course, Richard pointed out how only Hebrew e x p l a i n e d w h y an M-vowel/vowel-M word MEANT mama.
    Yes, the fact that there is MEANING built into the mama-word that also coherently integrates with the general semantic patterns of the Divine Language elevates the conclusions far above any competing explanation, such as blind evolution or onomatopoetics.

    The "birth of the nation" by the "breaking of waters" is extremely profound. The same idea is repeated in the Christian tradition and explicilty based on the older Jewish tradition. Paul likened the passing through the Red Sea as a "baptism" (= Miqvah) and this, in turn, is likened to a new "birth in the Spirit."

    Quote Originally Posted by IsaacMozeson View Post
    Actually, the word "Hebrew" can be a problem. The Hebrews are a historical people, and even their language has been a bit sullied by foreign borrowings. Even Biblical Hebrew is too historic. The pristine PRE-Hebrew, before the neurolinguistic Big Bang of language diversity is what I want to uncover and discuss. History was kickstarted at the tower incident in Shinar (or Sumer, referenced as the much later Babel). So, we want a PREhistoric Hebrew, as spoken by angels and humans at the Garden of Eden. Thus I call this Pre-Hebrew EDENIC. Edenic joins all children of Adam, all humanity. For some, the term "Hebrew" can be divisive.
    I agree with your goal to find the "PREhistoric Hebrew." I myself have been comfortable with the term "Hebrew" and have not encountered any "divisiveness" as yet. I like the term because it is broadly understood. But it has the shortcoming of seeming to imply that Biblical Hebrew is the exact form of the original tongue, and that probably is incorrect. My only hesitation with using "Edenics" is that it is unfamiliar to most, and so might not be understood. But I have no problem using it for the sake of our conversations here.

    Quote Originally Posted by IsaacMozeson View Post
    Back to near-universal words, my favorite is SACK. It is not a word as common as mama and papa. But 1000s of languages have an S-K (fricative-guttural) work for a baglike container. Only in Hebrew, I mean Edenic, does the reverse, K-S, have a relevant meaning. SahQ שק is a sack, while KeeY$
    כיס is a pocket or slip CASE. Yes, now you know where CASE is from, or to ENCASE. There is a whole family of throat-made + whistling, guttural-fricative words for various coverings. Reading an entry like "ENCASE" or "SACK" in my dictionary will demonstrate how a SHACK is a larger but like-sounding SACK (covering, that is).

    If you check out my introductory documents, you'll see that SOUND is SENSE.
    Sound is energy. Our Creator used hard science. Academics think that language is a chaotic jumble that evolved from gabby gibbons. But at its CORE
    (מקור MaQOAR means source) , from the natural majesty of Edenic, we can find divine design even in English.

    I look forward to learning much from your comments and questions, Isaac
    I have long been aware of the S-K root, but I had not noticed the relation to "CASE." I will have to give that a little thought. Klein's Etymological Dictionary links it to the Latin capsa < capere = to catch, sieze, hold. But then he links "chest" to cista (L) and an few similar IE words that ultimate originated from the Greek XISTH (chistey, basket). He sites the OIr cess and ciss which mean "basket." It seems like "case" is much more closely related to this nexus which coheres well with your observation.

    Do you have other examples of reversal being significant? Anagrams are very significant in my estimation. For example, the first born BKR received the birthright BRKH.

    Well, I got to go. Again, welcome to our forum!

    Richard

    PS: Klein really astounds me with his blindness. I own both his "Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language" and his "Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language" and the only links that he admits between them are the obvious imports such as "Amen" or "Jubilee."
    • Skepticism is the antiseptic of the mind.
    • Remember why we debate. We have nothing to lose but the errors we hold. Who but a stubborn fool would hold to errors once they have been exposed?

    Check out my blog site

  9. #9
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    I find interesting the little similarity between the Hebrew word token (Strong's # 8506; measure, quantity, quota) and the English word token.

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    Mistar - a Mystery

    The Hebrew word Mistar (Strong's #4565) means Secret, Mystery. There is a very interesting similarity between the Hebrew Mistar, the Greek Musterion and the English Mystery. The English word comes from the Greek, but that doesn't explain the mysterious resemblance to the Hebrew Mistar.

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