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    Stretched the Heavens

    Stretching the heavens as stated in the Bible is able to explain many problems faced in cosmology. It suggests there are pulling opposing forces in the universe and that gives the impression of an expanding universe. The stretch caused light to travel much faster and thus we cannot use the speed of light as a measure for the age of the universe. The stretching of the heavens provide a new perspective and alternative to the Big Bang theory. Now think Pull instead of Explode.

    Psalm 104:2 Who coverest thyself with light as with a garment: who stretchest out the heavens like a curtain:

    Isaiah 40:22 It is he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in:


    Have a read at the article:

    http://www.creationscience.com/onlinebook/FAQ15.html

    Accelerating Expansion.
    The redshift of distant starlight implies an expansion. However, a big bang should produce only a decelerating expansion, not the accelerating expansion discovered in 1998. [See “Dark Thoughts” on page 34.] Stretching, completed during the creation week, could have produced the accelerated expansion.

    Slowly Spinning Sun.
    If, as evolutionists teach, our sun formed in the early solar system from a slowly spinning dust and gas cloud, its spin rate had to increase as the cloud gravitationally contracted. (This is required by the law of the conservation of angular momentum. A common demonstration of this law is shown in Figure 81 on page 152.) The sun spins about once every 25 days (depending to some extent on latitude), just as the Earth spins once every 24 hours. However, if the sun contracted from a spinning dust and gas cloud, it should be spinning 100 times faster.7 [See “Angular Momentum” on page 29.]
    On the other hand, if before space was stretched out, the sun was almost as compact as it is today, its slow spin rate today would be expected.

    Star Formation.
    Astronomers recognize that the densest gas cloud seen in the universe today could not form stars by any known means, including gravitational collapse, unless that gas was once thousands of times more compact. [See “Star Births? Stellar Evolution?” on page 95.] According to the big bang theory, stars began to form by the gravitational collapse of dust and gas clouds 500 million years after the big bang’s sudden inflation. Martin Harwit points out that if this were true, the vast energy, angular momentum, and magnetic fields generated by each collapse would be clearly visible—but they are not. [See “Interstellar Gas” on page 95.]
    The stretching explanation states that the volume of the universe was much smaller when stars were either (a) made or (b) formed by gravitational collapse.8 Then, as the heavens were stretched out, energy and angular momentum would have been added to these stars. We should not see vast amounts of heat, extreme rotational velocities, or gigantic magnetic fields.

    Planet Formation. So many planets have been found outside our solar system that there appear to be about as many planets as there are stars. Many orbits of these planets show that they could not have evolved in any conceivable way.
    With so little in common with the familiar Solar System planets, these newcomers [extrasolar planets] spell the end for established theories of planet formation.9

    For example, more than 30 sets of binary stars—two stars orbiting each other—have one or more planets orbiting each binary pair. The rapidly changing gravity fields produced by each binary pair would have prevented any orbiting cloud of dust and gas from collapsing into one planet. This was recognized before these planets were found.
    The environment around a pair of stars, they argued, would be too chaotic for planets to form.10

    Besides, if planets could form around binaries, we would likely never see them—at least if they formed millions of years ago.
    Even if a planet could form in such a dynamic environment, its long-term stability would not be assured—the planet would wind up being ejected into deep space or crashing into one of the stars.10

    Now that planets are often found around binary stars, it seems clear that the planets are young and they must have formed at about the same time as the binaries. This contradicts the big bang explanation that stars formed over long periods of time from rotating clouds of dust and gas, and that planets form in similar fashion millions of years later.
    However, both planets and stars could have come into existence at about the same time in a much smaller universe. Large clusters of mass would have formed stars and smaller clusters would have formed planets, each with relatively small amounts of rotational angular momentum. Then, before all matter in this smaller universe collapsed into one massive black hole, the space between these bodies was stretched out, giving each body the great energy and rotational angular momentum we see today.

    Intergalactic Medium (IGM).
    Outer space is nearly a perfect vacuum. The IGM (the vast space between galaxies) contains about 10–100 hydrogen atoms per cubic meter. However, almost every hydrogen atom in the IGM, out to the farthest galaxies telescopes can see (13 billion light-years away), has been ionized—has lost its electron.
    According to the big bang theory, for the first 380,000 years after the big bang, the expanding universe was so hot that all matter was ionized. Only after the universe had expanded (and cooled) enough could protons acquire an electron and become neutral hydrogen. After matter in the universe was no longer ionized, stars and galaxies began evolving. Had the hydrogen remained ionized, the mutual repulsion of the positive hydrogen ions would have prevented hydrogen from coming together to form stars. (Other reasons why stars and galaxies could not have evolved are given on pages 33–36.)
    This presents a major problem. What reionized the hydrogen that today pervades the IGM? No explanation has been found. Most big bang theorists had guessed that the radiation from the earliest stars and galaxies—after the universe had already expanded for hundreds of millions of years—was powerful enough to reionize the IGM. This now appears to not be the case.12
    According to the stretching explanation, when the universe was created, it was extremely compact, so the intense light of DAY 1 and/or the light of stars and galaxies (created on DAY 4) ionized the surrounding gases. Then, the heavens were stretched out. Therefore, hydrogen in the IGM has always been ionized, just as we see it today.

    Figure 207: WMAP.
    In 2001, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), a NASA spacecraft, began measuring the extremely uniform temperatures of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation from deep space. The hot spots, shown in yellow and orange, are only 1 part in 100,000 hotter than the dark blue spots. Two interpretations are possible:

    1. Big Bang Interpretation: You are seeing “quantum fluctuations” in the early universe 380,000 years after the big bang, as tiny bundles of energy pop in and out of the vacuum of space. Those bundles of energy were amplified by inflation enabling them to begin forming stars, galaxies, and black holes hundreds of millions of years later. [“Quantum fluctuations,” while sounding impressive, have little experimental support.

    2. Stretching Interpretation: You are seeing early stars and galaxies in a very compact region as they were during the creation week.

    Colliding Galaxies.
    Galaxies frequently contain two distinct rotating systems, as if a galaxy rotating one way collided with another rotating the opposite way. Today, because of the vast distances between galaxies, such mergers should rarely happen—but many appear to have occurred.13
    Does this mean that the universe must be billions of years old? No. Before the heavens were stretched out, galaxies would have been closer to each other, resulting in much greater speeds and frequent collisions.
    If some galaxies merged over billions of years, why haven’t the different rotations within merged galaxies become uniform rotations by now? Clearly, those mergings did not happen billions of years ago.14

    Black Holes.
    Black holes come in two varieties: massive black holes (MBHs) and stellar black holes (SBHs). MBHs are millions to a few billion times more massive than the Sun. They lie at the center of every large nearby galaxy—and perhaps every galaxy.15 SBHs are only a few tens of times heavier than the Sun. If our Milky Way Galaxy is as old as evolutionists believe, tens of millions of stars heavier than ten solar masses should have collapsed into SBHs.16 However, our Galaxy has only about 50 known SBHs—so our galaxy may be young. In both types of black holes, mass is so concentrated that nothing within a specific distance of a black hole (called the event horizon) should escape its gravity—not even light.
    Astronomers admit that galaxies and black holes must have existed very soon after the universe began,17 but the big bang theory says that 380,000 years after the big bang (before stars formed) all matter was spread out with almost perfect uniformity. [See Figure 207.] That uniformity would prevent gravity from forming galaxies and black holes, even over the supposed age of the universe.18 However, they easily could have formed soon after the creation of matter and the universe, if the universe was much more compact and the heavens were stretched out before all mass collapsed into one huge black hole.
    Standard cosmological models implied that matter in the universe was not concentrated tightly enough to have formed black holes so early on. Clearly the models were wrong.19

    Nothing should escape black holes, yet jets are often seen traveling away from black holes and along their spin axis—some at “up to 99.98 percent of the speed of light. These amazing outflows traverse distances larger than galaxies.”20 (Actually, the spinning disk of matter and the magnetic field it generates probably powers these jets.) Stars sometimes expel axial jets, so this paradox could be resolved if space was stretched out after stars, stellar jets, and black holes began forming.
    The spin rates of 19 MBHs have been measured. The outer surfaces of most of these MBHs are spinning 80–100% of the speed of light!21 (If Earth spun at the speed of light, a day would be 1/7th of a second long!) To achieve such high spin rates, staggering amounts of matter must have been pulled into a MBH soon after the universe began. (Figure 81 on page 152 explains the basic principle—the law of the conservation of angular momentum.) This suggests that two galaxies collided and their MBHs merged. But remember, mergers of galaxies are extremely rare13—unless everything in the universe was much more compact. Had smaller bundles of matter (such as gas or even stars) been pulled into a MBH, the radiation emitted from the MBH would have been so powerful that its radiation would have blown the center of the galaxy apart.
    Following this picture to its logical conclusion, the intrinsic emission in this AGN [Active Galactic Nuclei] would have been so luminous that the associated radiation pressure would blow the AGN apart.22

    Quasars.
    A quasar is MBH that is radiating brightly from large amounts of infalling matter. Some quasars “emit as much energy as thousands of giant galaxies from a region as tiny as the solar system.”23 Most black holes have already pulled in almost all the dust within their vicinities. However, some MBHs are at such extreme distances from us (and therefore seen as they were far back in time) that we see them still pulling in large amounts of nearby matter. The gravitational potential energy of all that falling matter is converted to bright radiation, making quasars the most luminous stable objects in the universe. Light from quasars was emitted soon after time began.
    One quasar has been found that has two billion times the mass of the Sun, and yet is so far from Earth that big bang advocates say it must have formed (by some unknown mechanism) very soon after the universe began. (This contradicts their teaching that the universe began with a superhot expansion, and 500,000,000 years later, stars began forming.) “It is safe to say that the existence of this quasar will be giving some theorists sleepless nights.”24 However, these massive objects could have formed in a very compact universe if the stretching occurred several days after the universe began, but after most gravitational clumping.
    Likewise, much of the expansion of supernova remnants over great distances may be due to the stretching, not the passage of millions of years.

    Galaxies and Their Black Holes.
    The masses of most MBHs are positively correlated with the size of their galaxies: their total mass, luminosity, the number of associated globular clusters, and especially the mass of the galactic bulge. Typically, the larger the galaxy, the larger its black hole. According to standard explanations for galaxy formation, this should not be, because black holes are so small compared to the volume of galaxies today.
    For reasons not fully understood, it appears that the sizes of central black holes and the masses of their galaxies, especially the central bulges, are almost perfectly in step.25

    Here’s the problem: If a massive black hole formed first, it could not form a large galaxy, because black holes cannot affect something as large as today’s galaxies. If a large galaxy formed first, there is no reason it should then form a large central black hole. Therefore, “the correlation means that the black hole and galaxy had to form together.”26
    Why would the correlation of the black hole’s mass be even stronger for the mass of the galaxy’s central bulge than the mass of the entire galaxy? The strength of gravity diminishes as the square of the distance between gravitating masses.s the galaxy was stretched out, gravity’s strength would have dropped faster for the outer portion of the galaxy than the inner portion which produced the central bulge. Without this understanding, central bulges are a mystery.27
    Therefore, the sequence of events appears to be as follows:
    The universe was initially much smaller. Some regions contained more mass than other regions. The densest concentrations collapsed rapidly, forming massive black holes. They could then hold on to the nearby surrounding matter that was being stretched out to form the galaxy—especially the mass closest to the black hole that would become the central bulge.

    A few small galaxies sometimes have a huge MBH. Possibly the largest known black hole is 17 billion times the mass of the Sun! It lies in the center of the small galaxy NGC 1277, but has an event horizon five times the radius of our solar system!28 How can this monster be explained? Did enough time pass for a normal MBH to devour most of the stars in its galaxy? If that much time passed, we should see many examples of extremely large MBHs in small galaxies. Did multiple galaxies collide, merging several of their MBHs? As mentioned above, colliding galaxies are statistically quite rare in today’s immense universe.13 However, mergers of growing black holes could have occurred before the heavens were stretched out, and these extremely large MBHs could have ended up in small galaxies.

    Central Stars.
    About forty stars orbit within a few dozen light-hours of the black hole at the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. Those stars could never have evolved that close to a black hole, which has the mass of 4,300,000 suns, because the black hole’s gravity would have prevented gas from collapsing to become a star.29 However, those stars could have formed in a much denser environment,30 before space was stretched out during the creation week.
    Some astronomers say that these stars evolved far from the black hole and then migrated great distances toward the black hole. Such a migration, which seemingly violates laws of physics,31 must have been fast, because the stars are so massive that their lifetimes are very short in astronomical terms. Also, matter (or stars) migrating toward black holes must radiate vast amounts of energy as happens with quasars, but that energy is not observed in any wavelength for these central stars.

    Spiral Galaxies.
    If spiral galaxies formed billions of years ago, their arms should be wrapped more tightly around their centers than they are. Also, nearer galaxies should show much more “wrap” than more distant spiral galaxies. [See Figure 212 on page 423.] However, if space was recently stretched out, spiral galaxies could appear as they do.

    Stellar Velocities.
    Stars in the outer parts of spiral galaxies travel much faster than they would if they were in equilibrium. Therefore, these galaxies are flying apart. We cannot see them flying apart, because they are so far away and have been flying apart for only a few thousand years—since the stretching during the creation week.
    How did they get their higher velocities? Those stars were nearer the centers of their galaxies before space was stretched out. Therefore they had higher speeds. Stretching did [/B]not remove those higher speeds. Appeals to so-called dark matter, which has never been seen or directly measured, is not needed to explain those high velocities.

    Speeding Galaxies.
    Galaxies in galaxy clusters are also traveling much faster than they should, based on their distances from their clusters’ centers of mass. They too are flying apart, because the heavens containing those clusters were stretched out.

    Dwarf Galaxies.
    Dwarf galaxies are sometimes embedded in a smoothly rotating disk of hydrogen gas that is much larger than the galaxy itself. The mass (hidden or otherwise) of each dwarf galaxy is insufficient to pull the gas into its disk shape,32 but if this matter was once highly concentrated and then the space it occupied was recently stretched out, all observed characteristics would be explained.

    Figure 208: Dwarf Galaxy.
    An enormous hydrogen disk (blue) surrounds the dwarf galaxy UGC 5288 (bright white). This isolated galaxy, 16 million light-years from Earth, contains about 100,000 stars and is 1/25 the diameter of our Milky Way Galaxy, which has at least 100,000,000,000 stars. The dwarf’s mass is about 30 times too small to gravitationally hold onto the most distant hydrogen gas, so gravity could not have pulled the distant hydrogen gas into its disk. Because the gas is too evenly distributed and rotates so smoothly, it was not expelled from the galaxy or pulled out by a close encounter with another galaxy.

    Before space was stretched out, gravitational forces and rotational velocities would have been much greater, so after the stretching, the hydrogen gas would have assumed this smooth, rapidly rotating pattern, even though the galaxy did not have the gravitational strength to hold the gas. This must have occurred recently, because the gaseous disk has not dispersed into the vacuum of space. (The galaxy is seen in visible light; the hydrogen disk is seen by a fleet of 27 radio telescopes.)

    Heavy Elements in Stars.
    According to the big bang theory, there are three generations of stars, each with increasing amounts of heavy elements. The first generation should contain only hydrogen, helium, and a trace of lithium—the only chemical elements a big bang could produce. Second-generation stars would begin forming with heavier elements supposedly made inside first-generation stars that, after hundreds of millions of years, finally exploded. If so, some first-generation stars should still be visible, but not one has ever been found. [See Endnote 56n on page 93.]
    According to the stretching explanation, stars have always had some heavier chemical elements. The most distant stars, galaxies, and quasars that can be analyzed contain some of these heavier chemical elements.

    Distant Galaxies.
    Massive galaxies and galaxy clusters are found at such great distances that they must have formed soon after the universe began—exactly as the stretching explanation maintains. The big bang theory cannot explain how such distant galaxy concentrations could have formed so quickly that their light had 13.3-billion years to travel to planet Earth.5, 33, 34
    Furthermore, stars in the most distant galaxies contain heavy chemical elements.34 Therefore, according to the big bang theory, several generations of stars must have preceded those stars. That makes it even less likely all those time consuming events could have fit into the relatively short time period since a big bang.
    The stretching explanation says that during the creation week galaxies, galaxy clusters, and stars with heavy elements formed in a much smaller universe, before the heavens were stretched out. The stretching of space produced the great distances separating those galaxies from Earth.

    Starburst Galaxies.
    While we frequently see stars die, individual stars have never been seen forming. [See “Star Births? Stellar Evolution?” on page 36 and corresponding endnotes on page 95.] Therefore, evolutionist astronomers believe that star formation rates in our galaxy and nearby galaxies are too slow to be observed, but that amazingly high star formation rates occur in “starburst galaxies”—the brightest galaxies with the greatest red shifts. To achieve such ultrafast rates, those astronomers imagine 10-trillion solar masses of dark matter (invisible stuff) were present.35 (Because those galaxies have high red shifts, they are extremely far away, so we see them far back in time, as they looked soon after the universe began. Because those galaxies are so bright, they have many stars that all formed in the relatively short time since the universe began.)
    Actually, there is nothing unusual about those galaxies; we just are seeing them far back in time, as they appeared soon after they were created, but before the universe was completely expanded. Nor could they form 420,000,000 years after a big bang, because all matter in the universe would have been uniformly spread out. That would require too many miracles and dark matter—matter that doesn’t exist, except in some people’s minds.

    Strings of Galaxies.
    Long, massive strings of galaxies have been discovered.36 Obviously, gravity did not pull matter into long strings of hundreds or thousands of galaxies—even if the universe were unbelievably old. Instead, gravity would have pulled matter into more spherical globs.
    These strings of galaxies can be understood if galaxies began to form when all matter in the universe was initially confined to a much smaller volume. Then, the heavens were rapidly stretched out. Just as one might pull taffy into long strings, the stretched out heavens might contain long, massive strings of thousands of galaxies. Surprisingly, too many appear connected or aligned with other galaxies or quasars, as prominent astronomers have noted. [See "Connected Galaxies" on page 42.]

    Helium-2 Nebulas.
    Clouds of glowing, blue gas, called helium-2 nebulas, have been set aglow by something hot enough to strip two electrons from each helium atom. No known star—young or old—is hot enough to do that,37 but compressed conditions before the heavens were stretched out would.

    Dark “Science.”
    The big bang theory must invoke unscientific concepts, such as “dark matter” and “dark energy,” to try to explain the “stretched out heavens.” What is dark matter? What is dark energy? Even believers in those ideas don’t know, and some admit that those phrases are “expressions of ignorance [by those who accept the big bang theory].”38 Dark matter, dark energy, and many other scientific problems with the big bang theory are discussed beginning on page 33.

    Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB).
    The CMB is often given as evidence for the big bang theory. Actually, that radiation, when studied closely, is a strong argument against the big bang and evidence for the sudden creation of matter within a much smaller universe that was later stretched out. [For details, see pages 426–428.]

    Figure 209: Stretching Out Light.
    Unimaginable amounts of energy were required to stretch out the heavens—in effect, to lift massive gravitational bodies and move them billions of light years away from other gravitational bodies. The same energy source that stretched out space (represented above by the blue springs) also stretched out—redshifted—light (represented by the yellow arrows). The law of conservation of energy says that energy cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system. According to the big bang theory, the universe is an isolated system, so that energy could not have come from within the universe, as the big bang theory claims. Instead, it came from outside the universe. Thus, we can see distant stars and galaxies in a young universe.

    “The horizon problem” has perplexed advocates of the big bang theory for decades. That problem arises because opposite sides of the universe have not “contacted” each other—even at the speed of light—because of the great distances between them. Nevertheless they do have the same temperature and other physical properties. The stretching explanation easily explains this, because all matter was initially confined to a volume only a few light days in diameter. Therefore, temperatures throughout that volume reached equilibrium before the stretching began, probably by DAY 4 of the creation week.

    Summary

    Robert Jastrow (1925–2008), a leading figure in NASA’s Apollo program to land men on the moon and the founding director of Goddard Institute for Space Studies, aptly summarized this topic.
    Now we see how the astronomical evidence supports the biblical view of the origin of the world. The details differ, but the essential elements in the astronomical and biblical accounts of Genesis are the same: the chain of events leading to man commenced suddenly and sharply at a definite moment in time, in a flash of light and energy.39

    Jastrow, an agnostic and big bang believer, did not have the advantage we now have of seeing all twenty-one recent evidences (summarized above) that contrast the big bang vs. the stretching explanations. Nor is there any reason to believe that Jastrow ever considered the stretching explanation. He does recognize that no known physical forces could produce a big bang and its inflation.
    Astronomers now find they have painted themselves into a corner because they have proven, by their own methods, that the world began abruptly in an act of creation to which you can trace the seeds of every star, every planet, every living thing in this cosmos and on earth. And they have found that all this happened as a product of forces they cannot hope to discover. That there are what I or anyone would call supernatural forces at work is now, I think a scientifically proven fact.40

    Robert Jastrow’s most quoted statement by far is still true today, except for three modifications I place in brackets:
    For the [atheistic] scientist who has lived by his faith in the power of reason, the story ends like a bad dream. He [believes he] has scaled the mountains of ignorance; he is about to conquer the highest peak; as he pulls himself over the final rock, he is greeted by a band of theologians who have been sitting there for centuries [actually, a few thousand years].41

    With both the big bang and stretching explanations, it is difficult to imagine time beginning, the sudden presence of matter and energy in a small universe, then a brief but enormous expansion of space when all the laws of physics did not operate. The big bang theory says that space and light expanded for less than 10-32 of a second (a billionth, billionth, billionth of a hundred thousandth of a second) from a mathematical point—trillions of billions of times faster than the speed of light today. The stretching explanation says that days after the creation of time and all matter, a smaller universe than we have today was rapidly stretched out, along with light waves in that space. Although no scientific explanation can be given for either form of expansion, the stretching interpretation best fits the observable evidence.
    We also can appreciate why at least eleven Bible passages, involving five different writers, mention the “stretched out heavens.” Another verse, Psalm 19:1, takes on a new depth of meaning: “The heavens are telling of the glory of God, and their expanse is declaring the work of His hands.”
    God Bless.
    Last edited by CWH; 08-23-2014 at 01:16 PM.
    Ask and You shall receive,
    Seek and You shall find,
    Knock and the door will be open unto You.

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