04-07-2014, 12:42 PM
Many 'speculative authors' like Erich von Däniken and Zacharia Sitchin have turned into a saga of extraterrestrial aliens visiting this planet and impregnating earth women etc. He also created the fiction and propaganda about some rogue planet called Nibiru. Similarly to earlier authors such as Immanuel Velikovsky and Erich von Däniken, Sitchin advocated hypotheses in which extraterrestrial events supposedly played a significant role in ancient human history.

According to Sitchin, Nibiru (called "the twelfth planet" because, Sitchin claimed, the Sumerians' gods-given conception of the Solar System counted all eight planets, plus Pluto, the Sun and the Moon) was the home of a technologically advanced human-like extraterrestrial race called the Anunnaki in Sumerian myth, who Sitchin states are called the Nephilim in Genesis.

Sitchin wrote that Enki suggested that to relieve the Anunnaki, who had mutinied over their dissatisfaction with their working conditions, that primitive workers (Homo sapiens) be created by genetic engineering as slaves to replace them in the gold mines by crossing extraterrestrial genes with those of Homo erectus. According to Sitchin, ancient inscriptions report that the human civilization in Sumer, Mesopotamia, was set up under the guidance of these "gods", and human kingship was inaugurated to provide intermediaries between mankind and the Anunnaki (creating the "divine right of kings" doctrine).

Well, in regards to Sitchin’s idea of Nibiru, Nibiru is not a planet extending beyond Pluto. It is unfortunate that some of Sitchin’s ideas have flourished today. He was a manager at a shipping company and [did not learn certain things necessary to interpret ancient Mesopotamian texts.]

The scenario outlined by Sitchin, with Nibiru returning to the inner solar system regularly every 3,600 years,...implies an orbit with a semi-major axis of 235 astronomical units, extending from the asteroid belt to twelve times farther beyond the sun than Pluto. Elementary perturbation theory indicates that, under the most favorable circumstances of avoiding close encounters with other planets, no body with such an eccentric orbit would keep the same period for two consecutive passages. Within twelve orbits the object would be either ejected or converted to a short period object. Thus, the failed search for a trans-Plutonian planet by T.C. Van Flandern, of the U.S. Naval Observatory, which Sitchin used to bolster his thesis, is no support at all.

Is there some sort of planetary system of any kind expected to show up and cause a pole shift, and natural disasters on earth in the next few months or years? Or a second sun, or some other type of planetary or solar body??

NO. These ideas of another planet coming to harm earth is not even in the realm of possibility.

The alien Anunnaki theory is a magnet for religious fundamentalists & conspiracy theorists. It's an attractive target because "it all seems deeply mysterious- referring to spurious fantastical descriptions of allegorical-metaphorical passages in the [Fictional] Apocalyptic book of Revelations & the Book of Enoch where it tells about the fall of the angels, how they came to earth and married the daughters of men.

The Anunnaki.

THE Akkadian Spirit of Tishku, who directs the Archangels of the Earth-Elementals [ANNUNA-GE or "ANNUNA-KI"]. In the Assyrian it is the Anunna-Irtsiti (Annunaki), or the "Spirits-Elementals of the Earth." The Anunnaki were originally Terrestrial of the Earth. (Not fallen-angels, demons, little Aliens or E.T.s!)

Now the Chaldean [IGILI] were the "CELESTIAL-SPIRITS," and the ANNUNAKI were the "TERRESTRIAL-SPIRITS ELEMENTS." In some mythological documents the Infernal Lady Ninkigal was associated with a god who was called pre-eminently Anunna-Ge or Anunna-Ki, "the archangel of the abyss."

Antu(m) - Sumerian for "the earth", she is a colorless being who was the first consort of Anu. They produced the Anunnaki - [the underworld gods], and the utukki - the seven evil elemental-demons. She was replaced by Isthar (Inanna) who is sometimes her daughter.

The "Anunnaki" were the Terrestrial 'elemental-spirits of earth,' born of the Earth-mother in the earth, but 'they were not fallen wicked spirits,' demons or e.t. aliens as the religious fundamentalist and conspiracists maintain.

The inhabitants 'were altogether mythical (or eschatological), and [could not be human] nor the transaction humanly historical The land of the 'Anunnaki [can be localized by anaology in the underworld], but not actual elsewhere!'

The name is variously written & transcribed as: Anunna, Anunna-Ge Anunna-Ku, Anana-Ki and other variations are a group of Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian deities meaning something to the effect of "those of royal blood" or 'princely or noble' offspring'. In the Assyrian seven are likewise designated the sons of Bel as the seven Annunaki or 'earthly Anunnas.'

This was the subterranean realm!

It is to this old netherland of darkness, with no outlet, that the goddess Ishtar descended in search of the water of life. It was a land without an exit, through which no passage had been made from whose visitants, the dead, the light was shut out. The light they behold not, in darkness they dwell. 'Dust is their bread; their food is mud.' Still the secret source of water, and thence of life, was hidden in that land. This was the world of the gnomes, the goblins, and other elemental sprites, which, as Egyptian, are summed up, under the serpent-type, as seven uraeus-powers born in the nether earth. As Babylonian they were the seven 'spirits of earth,' or anunnaki. The beginning in this region was with the abyss inside the earth from whence the water welled that was to be most sacredly preserved as very source itself.

Here the spirits of earth, the powers of Khar, the Assyrian Anunnaki, were portrayed as watchers over the water of life and protectors of the hidden treasures underground. It was 'these spirits of earth' that peopled our mines and became the jealous guardians of their metals. These 'were the elemental spirits,' not the spirits of the dead who were worshipped as the human ancestors; the gods, not the glorified.

As Egyptian, the seven anunnaki 'were spirits of earth,' born of the Earth-mother in the earth, but they 'were not fallen wicked demon spirits.'

In the Chaldean versions the seven anunaki or spirits of earth are the guardians appointed to keep the secret of the waters of life in this underworld to which the dead descended and from which the elemental powers first ascended to the surface of the upper earth.

Anunna-Ge or Anunna-Ki were 'the Akkadian gods of the earth'; Anunn-Irtsiti were the Assyrian 'spirits of the earth.' In the Assyrian seven are likewise designated the sons of Bel as the seven Annunaki or 'earthly Anunnas.' It is to this old netherland of darkness, with no outlet, that the goddess Ishtar descended in search of the water of life. It was a land without an exit, through which no passage had been made from whose visitants, the dead, the light was shut out.

The Anunnaki appear in the Babylonian creation myth, Enuma Elish. In the late version magnifying Marduk, after the creation of mankind, Marduk divides the Anunnaki and assigns them to their proper stations, three hundred in heaven, and on the earth. According to later Babylonian myth, the Anunnaki were the children of Anu and Ki.

In the Chaldean versions the seven anunaki or spirits of earth are the guardians appointed to keep the secret of the waters of life in this underworld to which the dead descended and from which the elemental powers first ascended to the surface of the upper earth.

The Nephilim.

It was in the time of the Nephilim (םיליפנ), as described in the Book of Genesis, that certain transactions occurred which led to a deluge. The Nephilim, called the giants, are the fallen ones. לפנ means to fall down, to fall down from heaven, to be overthrown, to be abortive, or an untimely birth. These fallen ones correspond to the celestial giants of the primary world or cycle of time who failed and fell. In their time it is said the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair, and they cohabited with them.

The legend is developed at length in the Book of Enoch where they appear as the 'Watchers' of heaven. In this version of the mythos they are the celestial watchers in the astronomical sense, the disposers and timekeepers, recognized as seven in number. The language is not to be understood apart from the total typology of the subject.

The crime charged against Samyaza, Azazel, and their fallen fellows is that they have known and taught a reprobated or unworthy mystery; this they have 'related to women in the hardness of their hearts;' and by that mystery, they have 'multiplied evils upon the earth.' They 'have associated with women, that they might be polluted with all their impurity.' They have discovered crimes to them. It is said to them, 'You being spiritual, and possessing a life which is eternal, have polluted yourselves with women, have coupled in carnal blood, have lusted in the blood of men.' 'They have disclosed to the world all the secret things which are done in the heavens.' 'Enoch, scribe of righteousness, go tell the watchers of heaven, who have deserted the lofty sky and their holy, everlasting station, who have been polluted with women, and done as the sons of men do, and who have greatly corrupted the earth, they shall never obtain peace or remission of sin, they shall not rejoice in their offspring, they shall behold the slaughter of their beloved, they shall lament for the destruction of their sons.' This doomed offspring is emphatically described in the Clementine Homilies as 'bastards,' begotten of the 'fire of angels and the blood of women.'

The language is typical, the imagery physiological. The offspring are giants, that is types of typhonian powers which were lawless, and existed before the establishment of time and period, hence the non-respect to female periodicity in the figures employed! Hence also it is said, 'The souls of those who are dead cry out and complain even to the gate of heaven,' these are the souls that should have been human, waiting to be born, and frustrated in fulfilling their earthly existence, because of this non-natural relationship which has filled the earth with iniquity and corruption.

The language of the myth has the same basis in physics as that of the eating of the forbidden fruit and consequent fall of man. The watchers are tempted like the Adamic pair to eat of the carnal tree; and as in the one fable the act brings death into the world, in the other the earth is deprived of her children that should have been born but were abortions. Indeed, one of the watchers, Gadrel, he who discovered every stroke of death to the children of men, is singled out and said to have been the seducer of Eve.

The Giants.

Diodorus has it that the gods were at one time hard pressed by the giants, and compelled to conceal themselves for a while under the form of animals, which in consequence became sacred. In this version the giants displace Typhon, the gigantic Apophis, or dragon of the dark, as the representatives of dissolution and chaos.

The Egyptians moreover among their fables report, that in the time of Isis, there were men of vast bodies, whom the Grecians call Giants, and whom they place in their temples in prodigious shapes, who are whipt and scourged by them that sacrifice to Osiris. Some idly give forth, that they sprang from the earth, when at first it gave being to living creatures. Others report, that from many extraordinary things done by men of strong bodies, the fables and stories of giants arose.

The German Satan was at one time represented by the red-bearded thunder. Sut-Typhon was of a red complexion, and this one of the two proper hues was retained in the beard of thunder and of the giants, who were images of the Akhekh, the gigantic, the monster. Indeed, Thunder was one of the giants slain by Jack the Giant-Killer, who cut the ropes that suspended the drawbridge, and when the giant tried to cross he fell. In a later phase the thunder was represented by the thunderer as Donnar.

The Hebrew tsamim are the devourers, and the zamzummim are the mythical giants. The zimwi in Swahili is an ogre, ghoul, or other evil being said to devour men. The zimu in Zulu-Kaffir are cannibals believed to live in the far north, as a race of long-haired people. The sami buzz and sting as spiritual beings in the hells of the damned because the zimb first made hell upon earth in Africa; and in baalzebub (or Bar-Typhon) we find the devil-type on its way to divinity.

The elementaries, or brute forces of Nature, may be said to have obtained their souls in the stars. Hence, as Plutarch says, the Dog-star is the soul of Isis; Orion is the soul of Horus; and the Bear is the soul of Typhon- soul and star being synonymous in the Egyptian word seb. In this way the seven non-intelligent powers, monsters, giants, blind adversaries, became intelligent spirits, or starry souls, as tellers of time.

A land of giants: giants dwelt therein in old time; and the Ammonites call them Zamzummims.'

By an ordinance of the mayor, aldermen, and common councilmen of that corporation, dated in the year 1564, and preserved among the Harleian MSS. in the British Museum, a pageant which is expressly said to be "according to ancient custom," is ordained to consist of four giants, one unicorn, one dromedary, one camel, one luce, one dragon, and six hobby-horses with other figures.

The Egyptians described by Plutarch, had passed out of the primitive typhonian phase in which inspiration was attained by intoxication. The giants, the opponent powers, are here identified with the fall from heaven, and wine with the cause of the fall. We still call wine the blood of the grape. The first wine in the mystical sense was the blood of the Tree of Life; and this was actually partaken of in the eucharist of the mysteries before it was commuted by the blood of the grape, or the fermented juice of other fruits. The Egyptians were in the position of total abstainers from wine because it was the symbol of the earlier source of uncleanness, lawlessness, and sin against nature; and representative of the daemons or spirits that were early and elemental, and therefore the 'bad' spirits of later thought. This reaction is especially characteristic of the Hebrew prophets, and is still more plainly set forth in the Parsee sacred scriptures.

The Indians of Los Angeles, California, who related that the divine Quaoar descended from heaven and reduced chaos into order and then put the world on the back of seven giants, possess one of the most primitive forms of the creation-myth. These are the seven giants who in another myth are the builders of the tower; the seven who formed the gigantic cycle of the stellar year which was connected with the revolution of the bears. The Murray natives have the Great Bear under the name of Koob-borr. This is the old kheb (earlier khub) of Egypt. The same original is apparent in the North American Indian languages, where it is applied to two different representatives of the water-horse kheb asjabai, the bear, Omaha. chapa, the beaver, Yankton.

The southern Californians believed that when the Creator made the world he fixed it on the back of seven giants, whose movements, as in the preceding myth, caused earth quakes. The sky, according to certain of the Yucatecs, was held up by four brothers called each of them Bacab, in addition to their several names, which seem to have been Kan, Muluc, Ix, and Cauac. These four, God had placed at the four corners of the world when he created it, and they had escaped when all else were destroyed by flood.'

Prose Edda. Ymir was nourished from four streams of milk, which flowed from the udder of the cow Audhumla (Aud-humla), a being that came into existence by the power of Surt. From Ymir there came forth offspring while he slept: for having fallen into a sweat, from under his left arm there grew a man and a woman, and one of his feet begat a son by the other. At this time, before heaven and earth existed, the Universal Father (Alfodr) was among the Hrimthursar, or Frost-giants. The frost-giants and the mountain-giants would go up to heaven if Bifrost were passable for all who desired to go there. Many fair places there are in heaven, and they are all protected by a divine defense.

How the physiological origin dominated the figurative expression may be judged by the exclamation of Esdras for the climax of confusion, 'and menstruous women shall bring forth monsters!'- the monsters and giants of the mythos, which relate to the keeping of time and period, first in the human domain, next in the celestial, and lastly in the spiritual sense. The fallen stars then are period-breakers, and the mode of expressing this is in relation to the feminine periodicity.

The Kabbalists relate that two angels, Aza and Azael, complained to the deity of the creation of man and foretold his fall. 'You also, angels,' said the Lord, 'would sin were you to enter the lower world.' They were sent on earth, where they sinned by eating the prohibited fruit. After their sin, bodies of flesh were given to them, for an angel who spends seven days on earth becomes opaque and is substantialized. From these sprang the giants, born of earth, the red source, or flesh.

The war, like those of Moses and Joshua, against the giants and the waters, belonged solely to the astronomical allegory, and was described in consonance with the deluge typology in diluvian language.

In the Greek legend of the 'Altar,' Ara becomes the type of the victory of the gods (upper) over the earth-born giants and assailants of order and serenity, at the restoration of which 'Tunc Iuppiter Arae sidera constituit,' and 'Ara mundi templum est.' A restoration at the autumn equinox would also be necessitated during the course of precession as the old guiding stars sank down south.

Also in Buddhist legends the four rivers of the earthly paradise first created are represented as being seven in number. This refers to the first division of space itself, called the waters, into seven portions. In one myth a five-portioned earth is described as emerging from the deluge. This is in accordance with the middle-earth of Seb which was added to that of the four corners, continents, or islands, in the waters of space. From this beginning with water as a condition of negation and of existence as an escape, a deluge became the type of an ending in time which was variously applied. We are able to distinguish several deluges that correspond to the different falls in heaven. The first great catastrophe described is the deluge of the giants, from which seven were saved in the ark of the seven stars or constellations.

The coast people of California preserve the tradition of an ancient race who dwelt in the country, called the Hohgates, who were credited with building the vast mound of mussel-shells and bones which is still visible on the tableland of Point St. George, near Crescent City. The origin of these aborigines was assigned to the landing of seven Hohgates who came in one boat, and who on emerging from the waters built for themselves houses above ground. These Hohgates were fishers, and one day when the seven were out at sea, they harpooned a huge sea-lion, who dragged them and their boat towards a great whirlpool which lay to the north-west, at the place where souls go down to the underworld. But just as they were on the verge and about to make the perilous plunge the rope broke, and they found themselves floating steadily up into the heavens, where the seven Hohgates were transformed into seven stars or constellations. The seven Hohgates are one with the seven giants who support the world on their backs, or build the tower that is intended to reach the heaven. This legend shows us the same transference of the elementaries into starry kronotypes that we find in Egypt. They are also identical with the seven Cabiri of Ptah, of the Phoenicians, and of the Britons.

The Warau, an Indian tribe of Guiana, claim the invention of the canoe for a famous Warau, named Aboré, who was the first mariner that ever crossed the ocean. Aboré agrees with the name of Abaris, the hyperborean who was said to have carried an arrow round the earth without eating anything. And both correspond to the Cabiri, who were the first that ever sailed in ships, and who as the sons of Ptah or of the Phoenician Sydik are a band of seven brothers. 'Caba*Gaburi' is the name of a place in Guiana where one of the ancient shell-mounds is yet extant. This too is a mound or mount of the seven constellations identified by the seven Cabiri, the companions who revolved and sailed in the earliest boat or ark, or dwelt in the seven caves of a mount. The seven, then, who are grouped about the North Pole in the Egyptian Ritual have to be conceived as the seven timekeepers of seven constellations that made their revolution once a year, as the Cabiri, Hohgates, Rishis, companions, giants, or others, in the ark of the sphere. These seven had various types in heaven and on earth. Seven caves in the mount (of the pole) form one figure of the seven constellations that would be earlier than the ark, as men found refuge from the waters in mountain-caves before they could build a boat. Other symbols were the seven mountains, seven pillars, seven altars, seven trees, seven islands, seven provinces, seven churches, etc., which have been continually confused with the seven planets that were immeasurably later, and all of which have different periods of time. Pausanias describes seven pillars that stood near Mount Taygetus in Laconia, which were arranged according to some ancient rule, and were supposed to represent the seven planets. But he shows they were connected with the horse, hippos, or hippa, the mare, that is the water-horse as Kepa (Eg.), the goddess of the seven stars, and mother of the earliest hebdomad.

The seven British triliths would equate with the seven mountains, sevenfold division of the heaven. The oval shape agrees with altars, trees, provinces, waters, giants, and other types of the the uterine figure of the birthplace and with the egg which is a solid oval. The first egg of time emaned by the serpent of the year was evolved in the circle of the seven constellations, not in any circle of seven planets.

Further, one of the mystical stones of the Druids is known as the seven stone or Sith stone. Sith or sidi is seven, and Stonehenge is called Kaer-Sidi by the Barddas, as the seat of the seven. Now, there is a British tradition that these lofty stones were brought out of Africa by giants, and first erected in Ireland on the Curragh of Ku*dare.

The tradition need not he literally interpreted to be true. If the stones of the giants were raised on an Irish plain before a temple was built at Salisbury, the meaning would still be apparent. The stones themselves were giants, as they stood twenty-two feet in height. The giants likewise appear in the title of the 'Chorea gigantum,' or giant's dance, applied to the stones. Thus two different traditions identify the stones with the giants. Therefore it is possible the seven giants of the heptanomis once stood among the figures at Stonehenge, especially as one name of this ancient temple was the 'ship of the world,' a form of the ark of the celestial sphere in which the seven first sailed the over-sea.

These seven altars of the Tlalocs constitute the sevenfold and natural type of the mountain Tlaloc, which contains the seven caves, and was also typified by the pyramid of the seven giants. Moreover, the Mexicans not only built the mount or pyramid of the seven stars and seven stages, they also erected a group of seven pyramids, corresponding to the seven altars of Ialak, and the seven mountains of the Tlaloc gods.

We are told that 'The City of Babylon owes its foundations to those who were saved from the catastrophe of the Flood; these were the giants, (Heb. םילפנ = fallen ones), and they built the tower which is noticed in history. But the tower being overthrown by the interposition of God, the giants were scattered over all the earth.' As the giant builders were brothers, seven in number, these can be identified with the 'seven kings' who 'came as begetters,' in the Chaldean creation; the oldest of whom was the thunderbolt, in the ancient legend of the beginning. These were opposed by a later seven; the two being explicable as the two different gnostic hebdomads, the inferior first, and the superior planetary gods, the final seven great gods in Assyria.

According to Plutarch the earliest name of the mount of the citadel of Mycenae was Argion (Τό Άργιονόρός). Argos and Mycenae were confused on account of this arkite origin. Homer also calls Mycenae the altars of the Cyclops, i.e., of the giants who built the ark, the pyramid-tower, or sustained the world on their backs.

The mount of the seven steps, seven stages, seven giants, seven constellations, was the figure of the 'star station' that reached up to the moon. Here the four quarters were added to the mount which had now attained the lunar station, the region of the eight, where the moon superseded the goddess of the seven stars. This development is apparently described in the Magic Papyrus, where there are mystical allusions to the celestial heptanomis, called the shrine of seven cubits, which was succeeded by the shrine of eight cubits. The 'giant of seven cubits' who has the head of a kaf-ape, a type of Shu, one of the seven elementaries, is addressed as he 'who took the form of a monkey, and afterwards of a crazy man,' or a fool. 'Get made for me,' it is said, 'a shrine of eight cubits.' 'And as thou wast a giant of seven cubits, I have said to thee, thou canst not enter this shrine of eight cubits. And giant of seven cubits as thou art, thou hast entered and reposed in it,' i.e., in the shrine of eight cubits which followed the shrine of seven, as a new temple of the heavens, the heaven of the four quarters and the octonary of the eight corners. Four of the seven giants were continued at the four quarters, and these with their consorts constitute the typical eight in the ark.

The Chippewa Jack the giant-killer, the Tom Thumb and Khunsu of their legends, who killed the giants, is described as hacking them into little bits, and saying to the pieces, 'In future, let no man be larger than you are now.' That was but the cutting up or the bounding of time into smaller quantities, the final reckoning being 365 days to the solar year.

The four in the ark belong to the four quarters, and the eight to the eight corners of the celestial octonary. Seven in the ark cannot be confounded with eight in the ark, because the seven are males, companions, fellows, whether called giants, Cabiri, Khnemu, or the Nnu; and the ark represented the mother. Whereas the eight are of both sexes, described as consorts, and were the keepers of the four quarters duplicated in the heaven of eight corners.

The first deluge known is that of the seven giants. But the race was not absolutely extinguished. The rabbis tell how the giant Og escaped destruction during the deluge because he was of so tall a stature. He did not sink in the course of precession. The same story is told of another giant.

Orion, says the Jewish legend, was one of the giants who was not drowned during the deluge. He was so tall that he waded through the waters, holding on with one hand to the ark. Og, as a remnant of the giants, is said to have left his bedstead in Rabbath.

According to the Edda, the sons of Bör slew the giant Ymir, and when he fell, there ran so much blood from his wounds that the whole race of the Frost giants (the wicked race) was drowned in it, except a single giant (Bergelmir), who saved himself with his household. He escaped by going on board his bark, and with him went his wife.

In the Codex Chimalpopoca, it is said that the result of a great hurricane was to change men into monkeys. Here the men have been imaged in the likeness of the ape, which in Egypt was the representative of howling rage, and of the storm-wind. The ape was one of the giants, one of the elementaries, one of the seven. It was placed at one of the four corners as Hapi; when the four genii were established. The Egyptians also symbolised the habitable world by the ape, as Horapollo asserts, because they hold that there are seventy-two primitive countries of the world. This was the celestial world. But in the world below men bore the likeness of the ape that escaped the deluge.

The Chaldean deluge as the ten antediluvian kings who were giants in the time before the Chaldean deluge, and the ten sons of Neptune that ruled the ten divisions of Atlantis before it was submerged. These represent the division by ten that followed the seven, the subdivision of which, seven by ten, formed the seventy who overthrew the Tower of Babel, and who constitute the seventy elders in the mount.

In one of the Hindu legends we meet with a massive golden bracelet which had been worn on the arm of one of the giants of old who fell in the 'great war.' This was set with thirteen brilliant symbols of the ithyphallic Shiva. A figure of the priapic Diana, goddess of Hierapolis, copied from a medal of Demetrius II, king of Syria, is likewise surrounded with thirteen emblems- six on the one side and seven on the other. Here the thirteen symbols are lingams. These are identical in significance with the thirteen ornaments of the Assyrian asherah, the obvious counterpart of the thirteen female periods; the one completes and helps to explain the other. These denote a year of thirteen months of twenty-eight days, in the time of the giants, one of whom had worn the ponderous bracelet with the thirteen Shivaic symbols. These giants 'fell in the great war,' or were cut up into smaller quantities of time, as in the American myth, when the year of thirteen such months was superseded, and thirteen became the unlucky number.

Several creations are connected therewith, or different portions of the universe were considered to have been created on this, the tenth day. The first deluge is dated by it. That is, the earliest fall of rain is said to have occurred and Noah to have entered the ark on this sacred day. The deluge or rain represented an ending in time. There had been giants on the earth in the days of the seven, and in other myths the giants are seven in number.

The gods themselves bewail the oppressive might of the giants, or typhonian powers of dissolution, who grow stronger and more daring as the end draws nigh. Vishnu comforts them with the assurance that a saviour will come who shall rule as a prince of peace and justice.

The Norse jotunheimr, the giants' home, is a region of the eternal, or on the way to it, by means of gigantic cycles of time. The Saxon eoten for giant is a word unknown in the Teutonic branch of language. Nilsson traces it to a Lap word. Grimm thought it had been derived from etan, to eat. It comes from katen, an image, a ring, as the representative of a large circle of time. The eye as a symbol of the cycle was given to Horus, to Taht, and to Hu. It was likewise assigned to the giant as the Cyclop, and putting out the eye was synonymous with slaying the giant. The story of Odysseus and his escape from the monster whose eye he had put out has been traced by Antoine d'Abbadie among the tribes of Abyssinia. In this version the hero escapes from the cave by being carried under the belly of the ram. This gives the thread of a clue to the maze.

Solomon is reputed to have made gold as common as stones in the streets of Jerusalem. It was the same moonshine and solar gold, however, that the Gaelic Khunsu, Con, stole from the giants in the underworld, the golden light which they brought up after vanquishing the powers of darkness.

The Egypt wherein Israel played the Zonah in the persons of the two women Aholali and Aholibah, was the land of Khebt, the genetrix, a celestial region belonging to the Sabean religion, hence her paramours, who were Sabeans from the wilderness, and men of בר, rendered 'common sort,' or a multitude, but which are the huge men who are called elsewhere 'Sabeans, men of stature,'the giants of the foreworld and the early time.

In the Hebrew mythos the lion is associated with Moab, and Moab is the land of the enemy in the shape of giants, the mighty men who are stricken still as stone.

Joshua opens the gate and forces the passage by the siege of Jericho. The spies who bring back with them the giant bunch of grapes and other fruit report that the cities of the children of Anak were huge and walled round. 'And they brought up an evil report of the land, saying, It is a land which eateth up the inhabitants thereof; and there we saw the sons of Anak which come of the giants, and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight. 'This region of things gigantic may be found in the mystical abodes through which the soul has to pass on its way to the world of light and blessedness.

The second Egyptian abode is called, 'Greatest of possessions in the fields of the Aahru. Its wall is of earth. The height of its corn is seven cubits, the ears are twin, its stalks are three cubits (said) by the spirits seven (cubits) in length.' The spirits also are said to be seven cubits in stature, the height of the corn. Of the fifth abode it is said, 'Hail, abode of the spirits, through which there is no passage. The spirits belonging to it are seven cubits long in their thighs. They live as wretched shades.' 'Oh, this abode of the spirits. Oh, ye spirits belonging to them, open your road. I have ordered it is said by Osiris, the living lord, Osiris in his illumination. If any condemned spirit sets his mouth against me, or any male or female devil comes to me on that day, he falls at the block.' The monsters are here called spirits, but the word akh, meaning how great, would equally render giants, and these are nearly a cubit longer in their thighs alone than the Hebrew giant. Indeed in chapter 109 of the Ritual the inhabitants are eight cubits in height. The passage through the Hades in the eleventh abode is described as the belly of hell. 'There is neither coming out of nor going into it, on account of the greatness of the terror of passing him who is in it.' That is the devouring demon, the Am-Moloch. The same fear is reflected in the faces of the spies from the land of giants; they had seen the same sight. The Moabites called the giants who dwelt there in times past Ammis. The Am-am in Egyptian are the devourers. Am is the male devourer, Am-t the female devourer in the Ritual.

Pan gave to Bacchus a dog as his faithful companion; in like manner Moses is accompanied by Caleb, the dog. Bacchus warred with and vanquished the giants; Moses conquered the Anakim. Bacchus is said to have married Zipporah, a name of Venus, one of the seven planets. The priest of Midian had seven daughters; Moses married one of these, whose name was Zipporah. According to Boyse, on the gods, Bacchus was called Jehovah-Nissi; Moses erected an altar to Jehovah-Nissi. Bacchus was divinely instructed on Mount Nyssa, whence he was named Dionysus.

The giant (Repha) of the Hebrew writings is described in the likeness of Khepra as having six fingers on each hand and six toes on each foot; literally, the fingers of his hands and the fingers of his feet, six and six; and again, his fingers were twenty-four, six and six. These six-fingered and six-toed giants, or mighty ones, are nothing more than forms founded on the six-fingered Khepra. The particular instructions given respecting the curtains of the tabernacle are especially true to the symbolic number six (as kefa) and the principle of kabbing. 'And thou shalt double (kab) the sixth curtain in the forefront of the tabernacle.'This was the tabernacle of the god of the two cherubs and of the Kaphareth

It was in Gob that one of the giants was slain by Elhanan; another was killed in Gath; the latter name is connected with Khepra as רפח תג (Gath*Chaphr). Khat is to go round, reach the apex or height; shut and seal. In 'Khat-Khepr,' or the Crab, the circle of the solstitial year was completed and clasped. Gob answers to the Egyptian kab, the corner, angle, place of turning and doubling. The particular corner of the solstice may be in kab, the place of the inundation or libation in the sign of Cancer, and in the month Mesore.

This was the place of ending and renewal for a luni-solar year, and in the Hermean zodiaci Taht is seated in this sign. He may help us to understand how the giant was killed in Gob. In mythology an end is often represented as putting an end to, and the solar year in comparison to a moon was a giant. For instance, Khunsu is a youthful hero, like David; he is the luni-solar god, who carries the full moon on his head. He determined the circle of the equinoctial year, which was marked as with us by the full moon of Easter; but, as the representative of monthly time he was set forth as slayer of the giant, and thence of the giants the type of a larger period.

There was also a tradition that those who were thus shut up were pigmies. Gog and Magog are the two giants of Guildhall whose original was Gogmagoth, the giant whose stature was twelve cubits, and who was a ruling power in Britain before the coming of Brute or Prydhain

These legends find a fit place in the mythological allegory. The giant of twelve cubits is one with the Rapha with six fingers and six toes. The pigmies in Egypt were the seven sons of Ptah, who, like the seven sons of Sydik, may be traced to the seven stars of the Great Bear.

The ten tribes belonged to the first time, that of the Great Bear, and the reckoning by ten. This time in one myth is that of the ten patriarchs and the ten Babylonian kings whose reigns ended with the deluge; in another, the ten celestial trees in another it ends with the destruction of the giants, or the tower of seven stages built by the giants. This was the time of ten days to the week in the year of thirty-six divisions. With ten days to the week there were thirty-six weeks to the year of 360 days.

In the Syriac, Arabic, and Septuagint versions, Nimrod is called the giant; the name of Shu also signifies to extend, to elongate; and in the Magic Papyrus, Shu (Kafi) appears as a giant, the giant of seven cubits.

Another meeting-point between Shu and Nimrod can be found in the statement of the Paschal Chronicle, where the Mysians are said to be descended from Nimrod; 'Nebrod, the huntsman and giant, from whom came the Mysiatis.

The Fijians likewise have the deity of Number Eight either as three different gods, or as three local forms of the same god. Walu (Maori waru) is number eight, and Matawalu is a god called Eight-eyes. Kokolo has eight arms, and the giant Thangawalu, who is sixty feet high, has a forehead of eight spans.

Ngaru is a name of the Polynesian victor-god who fights with the powers of evil, the monster of the waters, and the devourer of the Hades, and unites in one the characters of Izdubar and Ulysses, Hercules, Khunsu, and Jack the Giant-killer. He fights with a shark during eight days; he is buried in the earth during eight days- the typical number eight belonging to the time of the eight gods- he is buried as a black and rises again as a white. He descends into hell and puts it out by letting in a deluge. He ascends to a region above and slays the giant. In all his conflicts Ngaru comes off the victor, and the equivalent naru (Eg.) signifies victory. Nasru has the same meaning of victory, also a governor. Naru, and Nasru enter into the names of the gods Nergal and Nisrock.