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  1. #1
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    Isaiah as a miniature Bible

    The Book of Isaiah

    Isaiah was the first of the so-called Major Prophets, and is widely regarded as the greatest of the Old Testament prophets.

    Isaiah began his ministry in 741 B.C. (the year that King Uzziah died see here) and his ministry lasted through the siege of Jerusalem by the Assyrian army in 701 B.C. However, the Assyrian army did not take the city; Jerusalem was delivered. An angel of the Lord struck down the Assyrian army at the gates of Jerusalem without a single arrow being fired. It was Isaiah's preaching that saved the city from destruction. So it is appropriate that the name "Isaiah" means "The Salvation of the Lord".

    As you will see, Isaiah not only left us with a prophecy of the Messiah, his entire book is a miniature version of the whole Bible, and it's central figure is Christ crucified. Isaiah wrote his book 770 years before the New Testament Gospel was preached, yet Isaiah clearly foresaw that Gospel, and the whole Bible in it's entirety. What you will read is proof of this. It seems that Isaiah's hand was "guided".


    The Book of Isaiah divides into Old and New Testament Parts:

    The Book of Isaiah is an interesting document. It consists of 66 chapters, just as our present day Bible has 66 books. And just as our present day Bible divides into the Old testament (with 39 books) and the New Testament (with 27 books), so also does the Book of Isaiah divide into 2 distinct parts, one of 39 chapters and the other of 27 chapters.

    Chapters 1-39 of the Book of Isaiah are known as the “Book of Judgement”, and (like the 39 books of the Old Testament) are filled with judgement upon immoral idolatrous men. Judah has sinned; the surrounding nations have sinned; the whole earth has sinned. Judgement must come, for God cannot allow such blatant sin to go unpunished forever.

    The last 27 chapters of the Book of Isaiah (chapters 40-66) are known as the “Book of Comfort”. These 27 chapters (like the 27 books of the New Testament) declare a message of hope. The Messiah is coming as a Saviour and a Sovereign to bear a cross and to wear a crown.

    So in it’s structure, and thematic content, the 2 parts of the Book of Isaiah closely match the structure and themes of the whole Bible – it’s Old Testament and New Testament.


    Central Figure of the New Testament Part is Jesus Christ:

    On close examination of the last 27 chapters of Isaiah (corresponding to the New Testament), we find something quite remarkable. These 27 chapters divide into three groups of 9 (3 groups of 3 x 3). Each of these groups is separated by the phrase "There is no rest for the wicked".

    The central group of 9 chapters deals with the Servant Messiah, and the central chapter within this central group is chapter 53. Chapter 53 of Isaiah describes the DEATH OF JESUS ON THE CROSS. So the central figure of Isaiah chapters 40-66 is the crucified Christ.

    In summary, chapters 40 to 66 (the last 27 chapters) of the Book of Isaiah correspond to the New Testament (the last 27 books of the Bible). We have seen that the theme of these chapters is salvation, and the central figure (found in the central chapter – chapter 53) is that of Christ crucified.




    The Beginning of the Gospel of Isaiah Corresponds with the beginning of the New Testament:

    Incredibly, the very text of chapter 40 of the Book of Isaiah corresponds to the text of the 40th book of the Bible, which is the first book of the New Testament.


    1) John the Baptist

    Chapter 40 v 3 of Isaiah reads

    "The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way for the LORD, make straight in the desert a highway for our God. Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low: and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough places plain: And the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together: for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.”

    These words find a precise correspondence in the 40th Book of the Bible – the Gospel of Matthew.

    Matthew (40th Book) Chapter 3 reads –

    In those days came John the Baptist, preaching in the wilderness of Judea, And saying, Repent ye: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. For this is he that was spoken of by the prophet Isaiah, saying, ‘The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the LORD, make his paths straight.

    These are the words spoken by John the Baptist who announced the coming of the Kingdom of God and the Gospel.

    2) Explicit reference to the word GOSPEL:

    Richard McGough, on his website www.biblewheel.com, points out an even deeper level of connection.

    The connection between Isaiah 40 and the Gospel is made explicit in the text of Isaiah 40 v 9 –

    O Zion, that bringest good tidings, get thee up into the high mountain; O Jerusalem, that bringest good tidings, lift up thy voice with strength; lift it up, be not afraid; say unto the cities of Judah, ‘Behold your God!’ Behold, the Lord GOD will come with strong hand, and his arm shall rule for him: behold, his reward is with him, and his work before him. He shall feed his flock like a shepherd: he shall gather the lambs with his arm, and carry them in his bosom, and shall gently lead those that are with young.”"

    Behold your God!” and “all flesh shall see” refer to the physical incarnation of God in Jesus Christ, who, becoming physical, was visible to all flesh.

    This passage from Isaiah contains the FIRST OCCURRENCE in the Bible of the Hebrew word MAVESERET, meaning BRINGER OF GOOD TIDINGS. The Greek Septuagint version of Isaiah 40 v 9 translates “that bringest good tidings” into the word EVANGELIZEMONOS. This word is used in the New Testament, where it is translated as PREACH THE GOSPEL (Romans 9 v 18). It is from the root EVANGELIDZO from which we get the word EVANGELIZE. It is the root of the word translated GOSPEL throughout the New Testament.

    So Isaiah chapter 40 uses the very words spoken by John the Baptist, the announcer of the Gospel, and introduces the word GOSPEL, just as The Book of Matthew (The 40th Book) starts with John the Baptist announcing the Gospel and is the first book of the New Testament (The Gospel). The phrases “Good Tidings” and "Good News” occur 6 times in the 27 chapters of Isaiah that correspond to the New Testament, and these phrases are completely absent from the 39 chapters of Isaiah that correspond to the 39 books of the Old Testament.


    In summary:

    We have a familiar series of events –

    • Isaiah's name means "Salvation of God" ; just as Jesus' name means "Salvation"
    • Isaiah preached for 40 years before the siege of Jerusalem in 701 B.C.; just as the Gospel was preached for 40 years before the siege of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.
    • Isaiah leaves us a Gospel of Salvation, which -

    1. Has 27 chapters corresponding to the 27 books of the New Testament,
    2. Has the central character of Christ crucified – in chapter 53 (the central chapter)
    3. Introduces the word GOSPEL in chapter 40 corresponding to the 40th Book of the Bible, Matthew – which is the first book of the New Testament,.
    4. In chapter 40 Isaiah uses the very words spoken by John the Baptist – the announcer of the Gospel.
    5. The last chapter of Isaiah, Chapter 66 uses the words “New Heavens and New Earth”, the very words found in the 66th book of the Bible and last book of the New Testament – the Book of Revelation

    Isaiah 53, the central chapter of Isaiah's "New Testament" foretold that the Messiah would come as a suffering servant to suffer and die for the sins of many.

    "Surely he took up our infirmities and carried our sorrows, yet we considered him stricken by God, smitten by him, and afflicted. But he was pierced for our transgressions, he was crushed for our iniquities; the punishment that brought us peace was upon him, and by his wounds we are healed. We all, like sheep, have gone astray, each of us has turned to his own way; and the Lord has laid on him the iniquity of us all." Isaiah 53


    "Who is the Suffering Servant?"

    In the New Testament, different people had different opinions as to who Jesus was. Some said he was Elijah, some said he was a prophet and others thought he was just a good teacher. "Who do people say that I am?". John's gospel provides the answer in 7 "I AM" sayings

    There are the seven [distinct] "I AM" sayings in John, the 43rd book of the Bible:

    6v35 "I am the bread of life"
    8v12 "I am the light of the world"
    10v7 "I am the gate for the sheep"
    10v11 "I am the good shepherd"
    11v25 "I am the resurrection and the life"
    14v6 "I am the way, the truth and the life"
    15v1 "I am the true vine"

    Similarly, there are seven 'I AM' sayings in the 43rd chapter of Isaiah:

    v 3: "I am the Lord, your God"
    v10 "so that you may know and believe me and understand that I am he"
    v 11 "I, even I, am the Lord"
    v12 "I am God"
    v13 "from ancient days I am he." [KJV: Before the day was, I am he.]
    v15 "I am the Lord"
    v25 "I, even I, am he who blots out your transgressions."



    770 years

    In the time of Isaiah, Israel consisted of two "kingdoms" - the Northern Kingdom - centred on the capital Samaria, and the Southern Kingdom - with it's capital at Jerusalem. The Northern Kingdom perished in 721 B.C., 770 years after the Exodus (1491 B.C.). However the Southern Tribes escaped destruction and where miraculously delivered in 701 B.C.

    Northern Kingdom 1492 - 721 = 770 years
    Southern Kingdom 701 + 70 = 770 years (we do not count 0 B.C.)

    The Northern Kingdom perished after 770 years. It was utterly destroyed by the Assyrians. However Hezekiah repented, and the Southern Kingdom was spared. Just as Hezekiah was given an extension of his life, so the Southern Kingdom was given an extension for 770 years - a second chance.



    I would like to stress that the symmetrical pattern of 770 years was not read in to the data - I made no attempt to interpret the dates - the dates provided by Ussher simply fall into this pattern - which should stimulate our curiosity.

    When I saw that the Southern Kingdom lasted 770 years (701 B.C. till 70 A.D.) I thought it was a happy coincidence. Then, when I realised that the 10 tribes of the Northern Kingdom had also existed for 770 years, I was surprised. Then when I saw that these two periods cover the entire span of history from the Exodus to 70 A.D., and that they are symmetrical about the midpoint of Jewish history, it seemed beyond coincidence. The balance of symmetry seems to extend to the theme - judgement on one side, and salvation on the other - guilty and not guilty !!

    Isaiah's gospel seems perfectly placed, at point of balance between judgement and salvation - between the JUDGEMENT of the Northern Kingdom and the SALVATION of the Southern Kingdom - a balance mirrored in the "Book of Judgement" and the "Book of Comfort".

    When I contemplated this pattern, the impression it created was one of balance between judgement and salvation - like a giant pair of scales - scales of justice. This was more remarkable because the pattern begins with the giving of the law, and ends with the final judgement upon Jerusalem. And at the very centre of this pattern, at the point of balance, we find the Gospel of Isaiah.. Ofcourse, this pattern is completely dependent upon the accuracy of Usshers dates.




    What is more remarkable still is that Isaiah preached his gospel during the 40 years prior to the siege of Jerusalem (from 741 B.C. till 701 B.C.). In the same way, Jesus' disciples would later preach the Gospel for 40 years prior to the siege of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. (from 30 A.D till 70 A.D.). One ministry perfectly reflects the other - in content , in duration, and in the final ending. So, 770 years before the time of Christ, Isaiah had given the Jews a “Gospel in miniature”. His prophetic foresight of the Gospel was fulfilled 770 years later (from 741 B.C. till 30 A.D.) when the true Gospel was preached.

    Perhaps it was because of the preaching of Isaiah's gospel that the southern kingdom repented and was spared from destruction in 701 B.C. It's final destruction came in 70 A.D. - 770 years later, at the hands of the Roman army. Peter had once asked Jesus -

    "Lord, how many times shall I forgive my brother when he sins against me? Up to seven times?" Jesus answered, "I tell you, not seven times, but seventy-seven times." Matthew 18v21.





    Before Isaiah we have the judgemental nature of the Old Testament religion which began with the Exodus out of Egypt (a captivity that had lasted 430 years). After Isaiah we have the Axial Age of compassion, which began with the exodus of the Jews out of Palestine (a gentile captivity that would last 430 years). The Isaiah stands at the balance between the Judgement of the old and the Compassion of the new - between the first captivity (in Egypt) and the second captivity (in the Gentile nations) - between the First Exodus and the Second.

    The First Exodus into Sinai marked the beginning of the Age of Law. The second Exodus into Babylon marked the beginning of the Age of Compassion (the Axial Age). 430 years of captivity preceded the first Exodus - 430 years of Gentile captivity followed the second.

    The whole sequence is an amazing choreography of balance that spans 70 generations from Enoch to Christ. The period of punishment of the angels for leading Adam astray.

    See here - http://www.craigdemo.co.uk/craig.htm


    So, this interesting pattern rests upon the accuracy of 4 dates - these are -

    1. The date of the Exodus 1491 B.C.

    2. The date of the destruction of the Northern Kingdom - 721 B.C.

    3. The date of the deliverance of the Southern Kingdom - 701 B.C.

    4. The date of the destruction of Jerusalem - 70 A.D.

    Consequently I must check to see whether these dates are correct, incorrect or unknown. I will try and do this over the coming posts
    Last edited by Craig.Paardekooper; 08-03-2011 at 04:41 PM.

  2. #2
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    Hi Craig,

    Great post! Isaiah is indeed quite a stunning miniature Bible. Here are a couple links to some more information Richard and I have done on connecting Bible books with Isaiah chapters.

    Isaiah the wheel within a wheel

    Isaiah-Bible Correlations

    Blessings,
    Rose
    Never trust anything you are afraid to question ~

    To know oneself is to know the universe...


    Live Fully...Love Extravagantly...For the sake of Goodness

    Be ye therefore wise as serpents, and harmless as doves. Matt.10:16

    Come let us reason together...Isa.1:18
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  3. #3
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    Quote Originally Posted by Craig.Paardekooper View Post
    770 years

    In the time of Isaiah, Israel consisted of two "kingdoms" - the Northern Kingdom - centred on the capital Samaria, and the Southern Kingdom - with it's capital at Jerusalem. The Northern Kingdom perished in 721 B.C., 770 years after the Exodus (1491 B.C.). However the Southern Tribes escaped destruction and where miraculously delivered in 701 B.C.

    Northern Kingdom 1492 - 721 = 770 years
    Southern Kingdom 701 + 70 = 770 years (we do not count 0 B.C.)

    The Northern Kingdom perished after 770 years. It was utterly destroyed by the Assyrians. However Hezekiah repented, and the Southern Kingdom was spared. Just as Hezekiah was given an extension of his life, so the Southern Kingdom was given an extension for 770 years - a second chance.



    So the "Gospel of Isaiah" appeared at the precise midpoint of Jewish history, between the JUDGEMENT of the Northern Kingdom and the SALVATION of the Southern Kingdom. And this theme of judgement and salvation is mirrored in Isaiah.
    Hey there Craig,

    I can see that the years give a rough symmetry, but I see no basis for such an exact balance because there is no way to confirm the date of 1491 BC for the giving of the Law at Mt. Sinai. It is Ussher's date, and as far as I know, it has been pretty decisively shown to NOT be correct. Have you considered this criticism of your thesis?

    All the best,

    Richard
    • Skepticism is the antiseptic of the mind.
    • Remember why we debate. We have nothing to lose but the errors we hold. Who but a stubborn fool would hold to errors once they have been exposed?

    Check out my blog site

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    Hello Richard,

    The Exodus story is a record of a hebrew holocaust. According to the Bible, this persecution of the Hebrews began at the time of Moses birth - 1570 B.C. according to Usshers chronology.

    This persecution was part of a large scale event in Egypt - the expulsion of the Hyksos

    The Hyksos were Semitics who began migrating to Egypt at the very time that Jacob came to Egypt. According to the Turin king list there were six Hyksos kings who ruled for 108 years. One important ruler was named "Y'qbhr" or "Jacob-hr" (Albright 1934, 11). Scarabs have been found with the words "Jacob-El" dating from this period. Soon the trickle of Semitics became a flood and then more militant groups arrived and effectively took over Lower Egypt. These Semitic rulers were sympathetic to fellow Semites, and many attained positions of authority. Many Semites were given positions of power under Hyksos rule. The Hyksos were at odds with the native Egyptian rulers. They followed their own religion and completely neglected the native Egyptian religion, so much so that many of the temples fell into complete disrepair. However, the Hyksos grew to be a wealthy and powerful merchant class. Avarice, their capital in the Delta, became a byword for riches. They even levied a tribute from the native Egyptian rulers who still controlled Upper Egypt.

    Finally, in the time of Pharoah Kamose (1573 - 1570 B.C) and his brother Pharoah Ahmosis (1570 B.C. - ) the native Egyptians began to fight back against Hyksos rule. Kamose captured many Hyksos cities. Finally Pharoah Ahmose laid siege to Avaris, the capital of the Hyksos, with an army numbering about 400,000. The Hyksos surrendered and they were expelled from Egypt, and once again a native Egyptian Pharoah became ruler of both upper and lower Egypt. So the Bible says - "A new king, who did not know about Joseph, came to power in Egypt." The date of the expulsion of the Hyksos is given as c 1570 B.C. Not all of the Asiatics were expelled. Asiatics who remained were treated quite brutally as slaves. The Egyptians made use of their labour. The Egyptians devised a plan of infant genocide to stop them breeding - to kill every newborn Hebrew male. This way the Semite population would be controlled. It was at this time that Moses was born (about 1571 B.C). So Moses was born during the very years that the drive began to expell all the semites. In fact, the Exodus story is basically the story of a Hebrew holocaust that began with the drive to expell the HYksos and other semites.

    Explusions continued during the reigns of succeeding Pharoahs - Thutmosis I and II

    For 40 years Moses watched the oppression of his people, as they were down trodden and abused by the Egyptian overlords, then in 1530 B.C. he killed an Egyptian and was forced to flee. 40 years later he would return to free his people.

    So you can see how well the Hyksos period fits in with the Exodus story. While Hyksos pharoahs were in power, the Hebrews were relatively safe. However once the native Egyptians had expelled the Hyksos, which coincidentally happened almost to the year when Moses was born, then the native Egyptians hatred for the Asiatics was turned against the remaining semites. Infact the Egyptians were paranoid, and feared that if the Hebrew Semites were allowed to breed they would join forces with the Hyksos rulers and over power the Egyptians - so they planned to kill all the male children, something which a Semitic ruler would never do.

    The Bible tells us that Moses was born at a time when the Hebrews were persecuted by the Egyptians. In the Egyptian history we find that there was a large scale drive to remove semites and asiatics from Egypt that began in about 1573 B.C. onwards. Ahmose was the new king who "knew not Joseph" and wanted to break the semites power in Egypt. Ushers date for the birth of Moses coincides exactly with the beginning of the anti-semitism in Egypt under Kamose and Ahmose. It was Ahmose who drove the Hyksos semites out of Egypt. Once the Hyksos rulers were out of the way, persecution was unchecked.

    Chronology Table


    Egyptian dynasty J. H. Breasted's dates

    1st & 2nd dynasties 3400–2980
    3rd dynasty 2980–2900
    4th dynasty 2900–2750
    5th dynasty 2750–2625
    6th dynasty 2623–2475
    7th & 8th dynasties 2475–2445
    9th & 10th dynasties 2445–2160
    11th dynasty 2160–2000
    12th dynasty 2000–1788
    13th to 17th dynasties 1780–1580
    18th dynasty 1580–1350
    19th dynasty 1350–1205
    20th dynasty 1200–1090
    21st dynasty 1090–945
    22nd dynasty 945–745
    23rd dynasty 745–718
    24th dynasty 718–712
    25th dynasty 712–663
    26th dynasty 663–525

    Source Wikipedia

    The Encyclopedia Judaica gives the following dates for the Hyksos period -

    HYKSOS , the founders of the Egyptian 15th dynasty; Asiatics who exercised political control over Egypt between approximately 1655 and 1570 b.c.e. The Hyksos established their capital at Avaris in the Eastern Delta, controlled the Nile Valley as far south as Hermopolis, and claimed overlordship over the rest of Upper Egypt. Avaris (Egyptian ḥwt- wʿrt) has been identified as Tell el-Dabʿa in the Northeast Delta.
    1570 is the date for the birth of Moses and the killing of the male infants.

    The Jewish Virtual Library says this -

    HYKSOS, the founders of the Egyptian 15th dynasty; Asiatics who exercised political control over Egypt between approximately 1655 and 1570 B.C.E. The Hyksos established their capital at Avaris in the Eastern Delta, controlled the Nile Valley as far south as Hermopolis, and claimed overlordship over the rest of Upper Egypt. Avaris (Egyptian ḥwt- wʿrt) has been identified as Tell el-Dabʿa in the Northeast Delta. Most of the Hyksos personal names are west-Semitic, in the same language group as Amorite and the Canaanite and Aramaic dialects. There seem to be no Hurrian names as was once thought. "Hyksos" reflects hekau khoswe, "the rulers of foreign lands," the name given them by their Egyptian contemporaries. They were also referred to as ʿmw, "Asiatics," the standard name for the inhabitants of the Eastern Mediterranean littoral, Canaan and Syria. After having infiltrated into the Nile Valley over a period of several centuries, they managed to seize the kingship during the chaotic period which ended the Egyptian Middle Kingdom. At the beginning of the 18th Dynasty (c. 1580 B.C.E.) Pharaoh Ahmes expelled the Hyksos from Egypt and pursued them to southern Palestine. After besieging Sharuhen (Tell el-Farʿah) in the south, for three years, he defeated them. His successors, Amenophis I, Tuthmosis I, and Tuthmosis III, completed their expulsion from Egypt.
    The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology -

    Hyksos [CP].
    The name given by the Egyptians to warrior groups who infiltrated Egypt at the end of the Middle Kingdom to dominate the Nile Valley in the second intermediate period between 1640 and 1570 BC and to form the 15th Dynasty. Their capital was at Avaris in the Nile Delta. Their expulsion in c.1567 BC under Amosis, the founder of the 18th Dynasty, heralded the start of the New Kingdom in Egypt. The Hyksos are not easily recognized in the archaeological record, although in Palestine they seem to have built defensive ramparts faced with smooth hard plaster. They seem to have been ruled by a military aristocracy and were responsible for the introduction of the horse and chariot to Egypt, and perhaps also the upright loom, the olive and the pomegranate.
    In Summary

    The native Egyptians regarded the Hyksos as foreigners, invaders, people who had no respect for religion. They had taken over the Egyptians homeland, and driven the Egyptians into Upper Egypt. There is abundant archaeological evidence showing that these semitic foreigners were people from Canaan, and included Jacob’s family. Scarabs have even been found fro this period with Jacob’s name !! It was these semitic rulers who had “known Joseph” and raised him to a position of power.

    However the native Egyptian rulers ,who occupied and controlled Upper Egypt, were biding their time – waiting to take back Lower Egypt from the Hyksos, drive out the foreigners, and make Egypt their own once more.

    It was in the reign of Ahmose that the semitic Hyksos rulers were finally and decisively expelled.

    Now that the native Egyptian rulers had regained control of Lower Egypt, they could dictate how the remaining asiatics and semites were to be treated. So they implemented compulsory birth control – ordering the killing of every male child. They did this inorder to limit the semite population which they feared would grow and ally itself with their Hyksos enemies. For the same reasons, it is obvious that this policy was NOT enacted by a Hyksos king, since it would be to the advantage of a Hyksos ruler to populate Egypt with semites. The infant genocide was a nationalistic policy implemented by a native Egyptian ruler.

    Such a policy of birth control could only be implemented once the Hyksos rulers had been driven out. This took place in the reign of Ahmose (1580 B.C -) when he expelled the Hyksos rulers. The Bible says that ”a new king, who knew not Joseph, came to power in Egypt”. The beginning of the reign of Ahmose coincides almost exactly with the Bible date for the birth of Moses (1570 B.C. Ussher).
    Last edited by Craig.Paardekooper; 03-02-2011 at 02:43 PM.

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    Thera

    The Eruption of Thera.

    There are strong similarities between the 10 plagues that accompanied the Exodus, and the effects of a volcanic eruption. This has suggested to many scholars that the eruption of Thera may have been responsible for the plagues. Soot causing darkness, burning hail, parting of the Sea of Reeds etc.

    Consequently, if we can date the Thera eruption, then we can date the Exodus.

    Current dating of the Thera eruption rests on archaeological dating and Carbon 14 Dating. Strangely, ALL the archaeological dating points to 1500 B.C. Dating of artifacts found within the volcanic ash strongly indicates 1500 B.C. However, the C14 dating points to 100 years earlier. This discrepancy has not been resolved. It is interesting that all the archaeological evidence points strongly to a date which is very near to Ussher's date - 1491 B.C.

    What is more, pumice from the Thera eruption is completely absent in Hyksos layers in Egypt, but first appears in layers corresponding to 1500 B.C.



    As you can see from the quote, the earliest volcanic debris is found in the levels corresponding to Thutmosis I dating 1500 B.C. Thutmosis, therefore, is the Pharoah of the Exodus. Thutmosis reigned 80 years after the persecution against the Semites began in the reigns of Kamose and Ahmose I. Just as the Bible says that there were 80 years from the birth of Moses till the Exodus.

    See - Archeological Dating of Thera
    Last edited by Craig.Paardekooper; 03-03-2011 at 02:40 PM.

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    Biblical Dating of the Exodus

    Finally, the Biblical dating of the Exodus.

    Here is an article I wrote before on the dating of the Exodus based solely on the Bible. The date for Solomons reign is obtained by counting the reigns of each of the Kings from the time of the Babylonian Exile backwards. According to 1 Kings the Exodus was 480 years before the 4th year of Solomons reign, so the period of Judges must have had overlapping reigns. The date of the Exodus comes to 1491 B.C.

    Exodus Date
    Last edited by Craig.Paardekooper; 03-03-2011 at 02:46 PM.

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    Ancient Historians

    It is interesting that ALL the ancient historians from Greece, Egypt, and Palestine as well as early Christian historians consistently associate the Exodus with the reigns of Ahmose and Thutmosis -

    1. Theophilus

    And Moses, becoming the leader of the Jews, as we have already stated, was expelled from the land of Egypt by the king, Pharaoh, whose name was Amasis (Ahmose)....and been enslaved by king Tethmosis , as already said, built for him strong cities, Peitho, and Rameses, and On, which is Heliopolis (Book 3, Chapter 20; Ante-Nicene Fathers 1975, Vol.II, 117).
    2. Manetho

    Manetho describes the rise of the Hyksos by writing: Tutimaeus. In his reign, for what cause I know not, a blast of God smote us; and unexpectedly, from the regions of the East, invaders of obscure race marched in confidence of victory against our land. By main force they easily seized it without striking a blow; and having overpowered the rulers of the land, they burned our cities ruthlessly, razed to the ground the temples of the gods, and treated all the natives with a cruel hostility, massacring some and leading into slavery the wives and children of others. Finally, they appointed as king one of their number whose name was Salitis. He had his seat at Memphis, levying tribute from Upper and Lower Egypt, and always leaving garrisons behind in the most advantageous positions (1940, 79-81).
    3. Herodotus

    Herodotus is known as the father of history. He was a Greek writer born in Asia Minor about 484 BC He traveled extensively in Asia Minor, Babylon, Egypt, and Greece. Herodotus wrote Histories which was later divided into nine books. Book Two deals with the history and culture of Egypt.

    Herodotus describes the Hyksos period by saying: Thus they reckon that for a hundred and six years Egypt was in great misery and the temples so long shut were never opened. So much do the people hate the memory of these two kings that they do not greatly wish to name them, and call the pyramids after the shepherd Philitis, who then pastured his flocks in this place (Book ii, 128; 1920, 431).
    Eusebius in his book The Preparation for the Gospel tries to show the antiquity of the Jews by referring to what Herodotus had said indirectly.

    Eusebius says: Herodotus also has made mention of this revolt and of Amosis in his second Book; and, in a certain way, of the Jews themselves, enumerating them among those who practice circumcision, and calling them the Assyrians in Palestine, perhaps on account of Abraham (1981, 525-26; Herodotus 1920, 319; Book ii, 36).
    4. Apion

    And Apion the son of Poseidonius, the most laborious of grammarians, in his book Against the Jews, and in his fourth book of his History, says that in the time of Inachus king of Argos, when Amosis reigned over Egypt, the Jews revolted under the leadership of Moses. And Herodotus also makes mention of this revolt, and of Amosis, in his second book (Ante-Nicene Fathers 1975, Vol.VI, 134).
    5. Ptolemy

    Now this Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy) was a priest, who published The Acts of the Kings of Egypt in three whole books, and says that the departure of the Jews out of Egypt under Moses as their leader took place in the time of Amosis king of Egypt; from which it is clearly seen that Moses flourished in the time of Inachus (1981, 525)
    6. Clement

    And whether the Assyrian history is many years earlier than the Hellenic, will appear from what Ctesias says. In the four hundred and second year of the Assyrian empire, and in the thiry-second year of the reign of Beluchus the eight, the movement of Moses out of Egypt took place in the time of Amosis King of Egypt, and of Inachus king of Argos (1981, 533).
    7. Tatian

    He quotes Manetho to show that the Jews departed from Egypt in the time of king Ahmose who lived at the same time as Inachus who is four hundred years earlier than the Trojan War which happened 407 years before the Olympiads started (Ante-Nicene Fathers 1975, Vol.2, 80-1).

    These historians provide testimony that is a STRONG confirmation that the drive to expel the Semites began in the reign of Ahmose I (1570 B.C) and was completed in the reign of Thutmosis I (1490 B.C)
    Last edited by Craig.Paardekooper; 03-03-2011 at 02:32 PM.

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    A Greek Exodus

    Diodorus of Sicily

    Diodorus was born in Agyrium, Sicily before 100 BC He traveled widely and wrote a general history in 40 books which have only partly survived.

    Diodorus writes: Now that we are about to record the war against the Jews, we consider it appropriate to give first a summary count of the establishment of the nation, from its origins, and of the practices observed among them. When in ancient times a pestilence arose in Egypt, the common people ascribed their troubles to the workings of a divine agency; for indeed with many strangers of all sorts dwelling in their midst and practicing different rites of religion and sacrifice, their own traditional observances in honour of the gods had fallen into disuse. Hence the natives of the land surmised that unless they removed the foreigners, their troubles would never be resolved. At once, therefore, the aliens were driven from the country, and the most outstanding and active among them banded together and, as some say, were cast ashore in Greece and certain other regions; their leaders were notable men, chief among them being Danaus and Cadmus. But the greater number were driven into what is now called Judaea, which is not far distant from Egypt and was at that time utterly uninhabited. The colony was headed by a man called Moses, outstanding both for his wisdom and for his courage. On taking possession of the land he founded, besides other cities, one that is now the most renowned of all, called Jerusalem. In addition he established the temple that they hold in chief veneration, instituted their forms of worship and ritual, drew up their laws and ordered their political institutions. He also divided them into twelve tribes, since this is regarded as the most perfect number and corresponds to the number of months that make up a year. But he had no images whatsoever of the gods made for them, being of the opinion that God is not in human form (Book XL.3; 279-283).
    Diodorus agrees with the Bible that there was a plague in Egypt, the Jews led by Moses were expelled from Egypt, they took possession of the land of Judaea, and set up a temple. The description of "many strangers of all sorts dwelling in their midst and practicing different rites of religion and sacrifice, their own traditional observances in honour of the gods had fallen into disuse" best pictures the Hyksos period. The Hyksos worshipped the god Seth who was identified with the Canaanite Baal. The other gods of Egypt were not as important.

    Clinton's "Fasti Hellenici" dates the Cadmus expedition to 310 years before the fall of Troy (Troy fell 408 years before the first Olympiad = 1183 B.C., so the Cadmus expedition occurred in 1493 B.C.

    " It is said of Cadmus that he came originally from Egypt in company with Phoenix :" Euseb. Chron.
    " Eusebius in another place mentions the arrival of Cadmus with a company of
    Saitae. They founded Athens and Thebes. Chron. p. 14. The ancient Atheni-
    ans worshipped Isis, and were in their looks and manners particularly like the
    Egyptians. Diod. I. p. 24—26^"
    Fast Hellenici p 32

    Cadmus is placed by the Parian Marble 268 years before the first Theban war and 310 before the fall of Troy'. He is a little before Danails in the Marble
    F H p 85


    According to Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, Cadmus arrived in Greece in 1493 B.C. and founded the city of Thebes in Greece in 1490 B.C. -

    Arrival of Cadmus, founder of Cadmea (Hales,
    1494 ; Clinton, 1313) .... B.C. 1493
    THEBES
    (the capital of the country successively called Aonia, Messapia, Ogygia, Hyantis, and
    Bceotia) was called Cadmeis, from Cadmus, its founder, 1493 B.C.
    ASYLUMS, OR PRIVILEGED PLACES, at first were places of refuge for those who by
    accident or necessity had done things that rendered them obnoxious to the law. God com-
    manded the Jews to build certain cities for this purpose, 1451 B.C., Numbers xxv. The
    posterity of Hercules are said to have built one at Athens, to protect themselves against such
    as their father had irritated. Cadmus built one at Thebes, 1490 B.C., and .Romulus one at
    Mount Palatine, 751 B.C. See Sanctuaries.

    The following King Lists provide a date for Danaus. It can be seen that he reigned as an Argive King in Greece only 15 years after setting out from Egypt with Cadmus.

    The Argive King Lists compiled by Castor
    Now we will list the kings of the Argives, begining with Inachus and ending with Sthenelus the son of
    Crotopus. These kings reigned for a total of 382 years, until Sthenelus was expelled by Danaus, who
    seized control of Argos. The descendants of Danaus ruled Argos, ending with Eurysthenes, the son of
    Sthenelus, the son of Perseus. After Eurysthenes, the descendants of Pelops ruled Argos. The duration
    of the reign of the kings of the Danaidae was 162 years. The duration of the reign of the Pelopidae was
    105 years, starting with Atreus, and ending with Penthilus, Tisamenus and Cometes the son of Orestes,
    in whose time the invasion of the Heracleidae occurred.
    The dates of each of the Argive kings are as follows.

    1679 Inarchus 50/2
    1654 Phoroneus 60/2
    1624 Apis 35/2
    1606.5 Argus 70/2
    1571.5 Criasus 54/2
    1544.5 Phorbas 35/2
    1527 Triopas 46/2
    1504 Crotopus 21
    1483 Sthenelus 11
    1472 Danaus 50
    1422 Lynceus 41
    1381 Abas 23
    1358 Proetus 17
    1341 Acrisius 31
    1310 Eurestheus 45
    1265 Atreus Thyestes 65
    1200-1183 Agamemnon 17
    1183-1176 Aegisthus [7/8]
    1176-1175 Orestes 15 (or 18)
    1175-1174 <no king>
    1174-1173 Orestes (back from exile)
    1173-1171 Aletes (usurper)
    1171-1158 Orestes (restored)

    The Argive King Lists compiled by Pausanius

    1675 Inarchus
    1650 Phoroneus
    1625 Apis <Niobe>, Car
    1600 Argus
    1575 Peirasus, Phorbas
    1550 Triopas, Lelex
    1525 Iasus, Agenor, Pelasgus
    1500 Io, Crotopus
    1475 Sthenelas
    1450 Gelanor, Danaus

    1425 Lynceus
    1400 Abas
    1375 Acrisius, Proetus
    1350 Danae, Magaphantes
    1225 Perseus
    1300 Electryon
    1275 Alkmene + (Amphytrion), Sthenelus
    1250 Eurestheus
    1225 Atreus
    1200 Agamemnon


    Argive Kings Compiled by Syncellus

    1679.5 Inachus 56/2
    1651.5 Phoroneus 60/2
    1621.5 Apis 35/2
    1604 Argus 70/2
    1569 Criasus 55/2
    1541.5 Phorbas 25/2
    1529 Triopas 36/2
    1511 Crotopus 24/2
    1499 Sthenelus 11
    1488 Danaus 58
    1430 Lynceus 35
    1395 Abas 37
    1358-1341 Proetus 17

    Argive Kings Compiled by Tatian

    1675 Inachus
    1650 Phoroneus
    1625 Apis
    1600 Criasis {or Argeius}
    1575 Triopas {or Criasis}
    1550 Argeius {or Phorbas}
    1525 Phorbas {or Triopas}
    1500 Crotopas
    1475 Sthenelaus
    1450 Danaus
    1425 Lynceus
    1400 Proetus {or Abas}
    1375 Abas {or Proetus}
    1350 Acrisius
    1325 Perseus
    1300 Sthenelaus
    1275 Eurystheus
    1250 Atreus
    1225 Thyestes
    1200 Agamemnon

    TimeLine Compiled by Tatian

    1650 New Order, Ogygus at Athens, First deluge. [Phoroneus]
    1580 Reign of Amosis 400 years or 20 generations before the Troy was taken. [Inachus]
    1525 Actaeus at Athens, Country named Actaea prior to being called Attica. [Phorbas]
    1500 Reign of Cecrops in Athens, Prometheus and Epimetheus and Arias and Io. [Triopas]
    1475 The coming of Danaus into Peloponnesusand the return of Europa from Phoenicia to
    Crete. [Sthenelaus]

    1440 Burning of Phaethon, Flood of Deucalion. [Crotopas]
    1425 Abduction of Core, Founding of the temple in Eleusis, Triptolemus, and the coming of
    Cadmus to Thebesand the reign of Minos. [Lynceus]
    1420 Reign of Amphictyon and the founding of Dardania by Dardanus. [Sthenelaus]

    Argive Kings Compiled by Hyginus

    1675 Inachus
    1650 Phoroneus
    1625 Niobe, Apis
    1600 Argus
    1575 Peranthus
    1550 Triopas
    1525 (Agenor)
    1500 Pelasgus, (Belus)
    1475 Danaus
    1450
    1425
    1400
    1375 Acrisius + (Aganippe)
    1350 Danae
    1325 Perseus (Tantalus)
    1300 Pelops
    1275 Thyestes
    1250 Atreus
    1225 Agamemnon
    1200 Aegisthus
    1175 Orestes
    1150 Aletes
    1125 Tisamenus, (Aristodemus)
    1100 Temenus, (Eurystheus)
    1075 Clytus, (Alexander)

    According to Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, Danaus was King of Argos in 1474 B.C. Herodotus refers to the Greeks as Danai because they descend from the tribe of Danaus - the Hebrew tribe of Dan.

    The first ship (probably a galley) was brought from Egypt to Greece, by Danaus, 1485 B.C.
    Haydn's

    So Haydn dates the arrival of Danaus in Greece to 1485 B.C. - very close to Usshers date for the Hebrew Exodus.
    Last edited by Craig.Paardekooper; 03-03-2011 at 03:57 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Craig.Paardekooper View Post
    Finally, the Biblical dating of the Exodus.

    Here is an article I wrote before on the dating of the Exodus based solely on the Bible. The date for Solomons reign is obtained by counting the reigns of each of the Kings from the time of the Babylonian Exile backwards. According to 1 Kings the Exodus was 480 years before the 4th year of Solomons reign, so the period of Judges must have had overlapping reigns. The date of the Exodus comes to 1491 B.C.

    Exodus Date
    Thanks Craig. I can see your logic, but I do not think it is a straightforward as you claim. I say this because there is no consensus amongst scholars or believers as to those dates. There appears to be some real problems with the "straightforward reading" of the text.
    • Skepticism is the antiseptic of the mind.
    • Remember why we debate. We have nothing to lose but the errors we hold. Who but a stubborn fool would hold to errors once they have been exposed?

    Check out my blog site

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    Ussher dates the "death" of Enoch to 3012 B.C. The Exodus Passover actually occurs precisely midway between Enoch's translation and Christ' Resurrection. From Enoch to the Exodus there are 1521 years or 555555 days. Similarly from Exodus to Christ there are 1521 years or 555555 days. It is curious that the Exodus should occur at the midpoint.

    In the time of Enoch the Fallen Angels co-inhabited with mankind. Consequently God passed judgement and placed the angels in a prison for 70 generations until the time of Christ.

    The Exodus splits the period of 70 generations into two equal parts - the latter part being characterised by grace - God provided that the blood of animals can substitute for a sinner - culminating in the atoning sacrifice of Christ.



    Infact, the midpoint of the part characterised by grace, is the Gospel of Isaiah - containing a vision of the Suffering Servant - the crucified Christ.

    This whole pattern telescopes in repeatedly, through a series of balances -

    1. The 70 generations split into a judgement part and a grace part
    2. The centre of the grace part is the Book of Isaiah
    3. The Book of Isaiah has a judgement part and a grace part
    4. The centre of the grace part is the Suffering Servant - the crucified Christ.
    Last edited by Craig.Paardekooper; 03-19-2011 at 08:39 PM.

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